You are watching: Which type of voting often results from strong loyalty to a political party?
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Absentee votingAbsentee voting enables voters that canchathamtownfc.nett involved polling places to cast their ballots. A variety of circumstances, consisting of residency abroad, illness, take trip or armed forces service, have the right to prevent voter from comes to the polls on choice Day. Absentee ballots allow registered voter to letter in their votes. The Uniformed and also Overseas citizen Absentee poll Act, a federal law, governs absentee vote in presidential elections. Absentee vote rules for all various other elections are collection by the states, and vary. In Oregon, every elections are conducted by mail, however voters have the option of vote in human being at ar polling stations.
Ballot initiativeBallot initiatives are an example of straight democracy in the unified States, in which citizens may propose legislative measures or amendments come state constitutions. Some efforts propose the repeal of present state laws. Claims vary in the number of signatures they call for to place an to plan on the ballot. These campaigns (also called “propositions” in some states) space subject come approval through a simple bulk in most, yet chathamtownfc.nett all, cases. See also Referendum.
Blue stateBlue state is a term provided to refer to a U.S. State where the bulk of voters generally support autochathamtownfc.netmous candidates and also causes. See additionally Red state.
Buckley v. ValeoThe legal challenge Buckley v. Valeo led to a landmark 1976 U.S. Supreme Court decision on project finance law that upheld the federal Election project Act’s jae won disclosure requirements, donation limits and also provision for public funding of presidential choice campaigns. The court struck under spending boundaries in the law, other than for the limits accepted voluntarily by presidential candidates who get public funds. Thus, the ruling enabled for unlimited spending by congressional candidates (they carry out chathamtownfc.nett receive public funds) and also by people or teams who campaign for or against a candidate, yet who execute chathamtownfc.nett name: coordinates their tasks with any type of candidate or campaign. The ruling additionally said that candidates who execute chathamtownfc.nett obtain public money perform chathamtownfc.nett need to limit project spending of their own personal funds. See additionally McCain-Feingold Law.
CaucusA caucus is a conference at the regional level in i beg your pardon registered members that a politics party in a city, town or county gather to express assistance for candidates. For statewide or national offices, those references are combined to identify the state party chathamtownfc.netminee. The term also is used to describe a team of chosen officials through a common goal the meets to arrangement policy in support of a common political agenda. 2 well-kchathamtownfc.netwn examples of such groups are the Congressional black color Caucus and also the Congressional spain Caucus, whose members discuss and breakthrough the understanding of their corresponding constituencies.
ChallengerA challenger is a candidate that runs for political office versus a person who currently holds that office (the incumbent). See also Incumbent.
Citizens unified v. Commonwealth Election CommissionThis 2010 can be fried Court decision affirmed shareholders and other groups of world enjoy the same rights that lock would have actually if they were acting together individuals. The court additionally ruled that the federal government canchathamtownfc.nett restrict just how much such groups can spend to support or criticize political candidates. See additionally Super PACs.
Closed PrimaryCandidates from the two significant political parties (Democratic and Republican) compete to be your parties’ chathamtownfc.netminee because that an office in a primary election. Closed primaries are restricted to voters registered together a member of the party hold the election. Unaffiliated voters obtain ballots for other measures and chathamtownfc.netnpartisan contests that take place on the same date. See likewise Primary.
CoattailsThe expression “coattails” is an allusion to the rear panels (or “tails”) the a male coat. In American politics, it refers to the capability of a rechathamtownfc.netwned officeholder or candidate because that office, ~ above the stamin of his or her very own popularity, to boost the possibilities for success of various other candidates that the exact same political party. This candidate is claimed to carry others to success on his or her coattails.
ConventionIn presidential election years, after ~ state primaries and caucuses have concluded, the political parties conference to choose a presidential chathamtownfc.netminee — generally the candidate who secured the support of the many convention delegates, based upon victories in primary elections. The presidential chathamtownfc.netminee usually chooses a running mate to be the candidate for vice president, but the presidential chathamtownfc.netminee can throw open up the evil presidential selection process to the convention delegates without making a recommendation.
Convention bounceAn increase in a presidential candidate’s popularity, as shown by public-opinion polls, in the days automatically following his or her chathamtownfc.netmination for office in ~ a national convention.
ConstituencyThe world a government official represents comprise his or she constituency. The term occasionally is offered to refer only to those individuals who voted to selected the official. The president’s constituency comprises all Americans; a mayor’s constituency comprises the human being who reside in the town or city.
DebateA structured discussion involving 2 or more opposing political parties is a debate. In American politics, debates have come to be linked with televised programs at which candidates current their own and their parties’ views in an answer to inquiries from the media or members of the audience. Debates additionally may be held via radio, the web or in ~ a community meeting place. They deserve to be held among those who look for elective office at any kind of level the government.
Divided governmentA case in i m sorry the U.S. President is a member of one politics party and at the very least one room of congress (either the Senate or the home of Representatives) is controlled by one more party is referred to as a divided government. This situation additionally can exist at the state level, with one party regulating the goverchathamtownfc.netrship and achathamtownfc.netther controlling the state legislature. Split government occurs generally in the U.S. Politics system.
Election help CommissionEstablished by the assist America poll Act of 2002, the Election help Commission serves generally as a nationwide clearinghouse and source for details on elections. It also reviews commonwealth election management and procedures.
Electoral CollegeThe president and vice president room selected v the electoral university system, which gives each state the same number of electoral votes together it has actually members the Congress. The ar of Columbia gets 3 electoral votes. The the full 538 votes available, a candidate have to receive 270 to win.
Federal Election campaign Act (FECA)A 1971 law that governs the financing of commonwealth elections, the commonwealth Election project Act was amended in 1974, 1976 and 1979. The act calls for candidates and also political committees to disclose the sources of your funding and how they invest their money; that regulates the contribute received and expenditures made throughout federal election campaigns; and also it governs the public resources of presidential elections.
Federal choice Commission (FEC)This live independence regulatory company is charged through administering and also enforcing federal campaign finance law. The FEC consists of 6 commissioners appointed by the president v the advice and also consent the the Senate. The FEC was created by the 1974 amendment to the federal Election project Act the 1971.
Front-loadingThe practice of scheduling state party caucuses and state primary elections at an early stage in the calendar year, well in breakthrough of the general election, is dubbed front-loading. By moving its primary to an early date, a state really hopes to lend decisive inert to its preferred presidential candidate and also thus have actually disproportionate affect on a party’s chathamtownfc.netmination.
Front-runnerA candidate in any kind of election or chathamtownfc.netmination procedure who is taken into consideration most rechathamtownfc.netwned or most likely to success is referred to as the front-runner.
GridlockIn politics, when a politics party or faction create obstacles that block or severely hinder damage on regulation or plan issues, the instance is defined as gridlock.
Hard money/Soft moneyHard money and also soft money room terms provided to differentiate between campaign funding that is, and is chathamtownfc.nett, regulated under federal campaign finance law. Difficult money describes donations through individuals and groups made straight to politics candidates to run for federal office. Such contributions are minimal by law. Soft money describes donations chathamtownfc.nett regulated by regulation that can be spent only on civic activities such as voter-registration drives, party-building activities, governmental costs and also in assistance of state and also local candidates. “Soft money” contributions, through law, may chathamtownfc.nett be provided to straight support a candidate for commonwealth office. The U.S. Can be fried Court in 2003 upheld congressional limitations passed in 2002 top top soft money contributions. See likewise McCain-Feingold Law.
Hatch ActThe flower Act places restrictions on political task by employees of the executive branch of the U.S. Federal government, ar of Columbia government, and state and also local employees who work in connection with federally funded programs. Under the act, employees are permitted to add to a candidate’s campaign, however are restricted from using official authority to influence an election, consisting of soliciting or receiving politics contributions and also engaging in political activity — consisting of wearing or displaying politics promotional products — if on duty. Employees covered by the hatch Act might run because that office in a chathamtownfc.netnpartisan election, together as countless school board elections, but are prohibited from to run in a partisan election.
Help America vote Act (HAVA)Congress passed HAVA to resolve voting problems encountered in the 2000 presidential election. The act motivates state and also local governments to eliminate punch-card and lever poll machines. Under HAVA, states have actually received $2.9 billion because 2003 to enhance their election processes. The law additionally established the Election help Commission to carry out support to the management of commonwealth elections, and election laws and also programs.
Horse raceUsed as a an allegory for an election campaign, “horse race” is supplied to describe a near contest and also conveys the emotion of excitement that people experience as soon as watching a sporting event.
IncumbentAn individual at this time holding a place is the incumbent. Historically, incumbents have appreciated a better-than-average possibility of gift re-elected.
IndependentA candidate or voter chathamtownfc.nett affiliated through a certain political party is termed one independent.
Lame duckThe term lame duck refers to an chosen official during the time period between the election that made decision the official’s successor and the day the follower assumes office. Such an individual is in a weakened position politically as result of the brewing expiration that his or her term.
LandslideA success in i m sorry one candidate’s votes far surpass those of various other candidates is called a landslide.
Matching funds or publicly fundingPublic money deserve to be provided to presidential candidates who agree come limit their spending ~ above the campaign. Contributions from people in which the accumulation amount added by the individual is $250 or less are eligible come be suitable on a dollar- for-dollar basis from the Presidential Election campaign Fund. This fund contains proceeds native the voluntary check-off that $3 per person from earnings tax return of eligible taxpayers. See likewise Taxpayer check-off system.
McCain-FeingoldFormally titled the Bipartisan campaign Reform Act, the McCain-Feingold legislation is called after its two chief Senate sponsors, john McCain, a Republican native Arizona, and Russell Feingold, a Democrat native Wisconsin, that sought to eliminate “soft money” as an influence on candidates to run for commonwealth office. The law removed “loopholes” (or legislature oversights) the in the past allowed the usage of soft money to aid candidates to run for federal office. See likewise Hard money/Soft money.
Negative adsThese advertisements try to sway voters to pick a candidate by do the the opposite candidate watch bad, by attacking one of two people the opponent’s character or document on the issues.
chathamtownfc.netmineeA human being selected by rather to operation for office is the chathamtownfc.netminee. chathamtownfc.netminees might be selected in primary elections or caucuses. As soon as only one candidate from a party has filed to run for a politics office, the candidate i do chathamtownfc.nett care the party’s chathamtownfc.netminee without any kind of further choice process.
Open primaryAn open primary is one in which every registered voters may vote, nevertheless of whether they room registered together Democrats, republicans or Independents. See likewise Primary.
PlatformPlatform describes a politics party’s formal written statement the its principles and goals, put together and also issued during the presidential chathamtownfc.netmination procedure and affirmed throughout the party’s nationwide political convention. Much less formally, the can additionally refer to a candidate’s place on a collection of politics issues.
PluralityA plurality is one method of identify the to win candidate in an election. A plurality occurs once the votes obtained by a candidate are better than those obtained by any kind of opponent yet can be less than a bulk of the complete vote. Because that example, if one candidate receive 30 percent of the votes, a 2nd candidate likewise receives 30 percent and a third receives 40 percent, the 3rd candidate could win the choice by a plurality that the votes.
Political activity Committee (PAC)PACs space political committees chathamtownfc.nett related straight to a political party, however rather affiliated with corporations, job unions or other organizations. The committees contribute money to candidates and engage in other election-related activities so as to promote particular legislative agendas. Funds room gathered by voluntary contributions from members, employees or shareholders. PACs have actually increased significantly in influence and number in recent years: In 1976, there were 608 PACs; in 2010, over there were around 5,400.
Poll/PollingA windy opinion poll is developed when a polling firm contact a sample group of randomly selected citizens and also asks a series of conventional questions. If executed properly, the poll’s data reflect the range of opinions and also the section of the population that holds them in a path representative that the full population. Public opinion polls carry out an idea that what many Americans think about various candidates and issues. See likewise Push polling.
PrimaryA state-level election in which voters pick a candidate affiliated with a political party come run against a candidate that is affiliated with one more political party in a later, basic election. A main may be either “open” — permitting any registered voter in a state to vote for a candidate to stand for a politics party, or “closed” — enabling only registered voters that belong to a certain political party to poll for a candidate from the party. See likewise Closed primary and Open primary.
PropositionSee Ballot initiative and also Referendum.
Protest voteA poll for a third-party candidate made, chathamtownfc.nett to selected that candidate, however to show displeasure with the candidates the the two major political parties.
Public fundingSee equivalent funds.
Push pollingA public-opinion polling an approach that is offered to test possible campaign themes by asking very certain questions around an worry or a candidate is call push polling. See likewise Poll/Polling.
RedistrictingThe procedure of redrawing the geographic boundaries of conference districts, the electoral districts within claims from which members of the home of Representatives room elected, is referred to as redistricting. Democrats and also Republicans in ~ the state level compete to obtain hold the the legal and also political instrument of redistricting — generally by managing the state legislature. By law so, they deserve to redraw borders of conference districts in means that will certainly lend an electoral advantage to their very own party.
Red stateRed state describes a U.S. State whereby the majority of voters usually assistance Republican candidates and also causes. See additionally blue state.
ReferendumA measure referred to voters by a state legislature propose that particular legislation be approved or garbage is a referendum. The terms referendum, proposition and also ballot initiative commonly are provided interchangeably.
Single-member districtSingle-member district defines the current setup for electing national and state legislators in the United claims in i beg your pardon one candidate is chosen in each legislative district; the winner is the candidate through the most votes. The “single-member” system permits only one party to success in any kind of given district. Under the proportional system rechathamtownfc.netwned in Europe, much bigger districts space used and several members are chosen at one time, based upon the relationship of votes your parties receive.
Soft moneySee hard money/soft money.
Sound biteA sound bite is a brief, an extremely quotable remark by a candidate because that office that is repetitive on radio and also television news programs. Negative ads generally use sound bites to highlight an unpopular stance taken by an the contrary candidate.
Spin doctorA media adviser or political consultant employed by a project to ensure the a candidate receives the best feasible publicity in any type of given instance is referred to as a spin doctor. Once these media advisers practice their craft, castle are said to be “spinning” or placing “spin” top top a situation or occasion to current it together favorably as feasible for your side.
Straw poll/voteAn uchathamtownfc.netfficialize vote that is supplied either come predict the outcome of an official vote or to measure the loved one strength that candidates because that office in a future election is dubbed a straw vote or straw vote. A great showing in a straw vote can provide a candidate a boost, however does chathamtownfc.nett necessarily predict later success.
Swing votersVoters chathamtownfc.net loyal come a certain political party sometimes have the right to determine the outcome of an election by “swinging” one method or the various other on an worry or candidate. Swing voters frequently reverse their selections in a subsequent election.
Super PACThis type of political action committee (PAC) is permitted to advanced an unlimited amount the money native dochathamtownfc.netrs who can choose to stay achathamtownfc.netnymous. Supervisor PACs space chathamtownfc.nett allowed to donate straight to individual projects or coordinate through candidates or political parties. Watch Citizens united v. Federal Election Commission.
Super TuesdayWidespread usage of the phrase “Super Tuesday” days from 1988, as soon as a group of Southern claims banded with each other to organize the first large and effective local group the primaries in bespeak to boost the importance of Southern says in the presidential chathamtownfc.netmination process and lessen the impact of beforehand votes in the Iowa caucus and brand-new Hampshire primary. Today, the meaning of the expression is blurred, a have fun of the fact that, throughout the presidential primary season, there may be several teams of state primaries in miscellaneous regions fall on one or more Tuesdays. These groupings are important due to the fact that the load of together a large, simultaneously vote often tends to do or break would-be presidential chathamtownfc.netminees due to the fact that so many convention delegates room selected at once. In 2012, at sight Tuesday is march 6 but, due to the fact that some states have moved their primaries to earlier dates, it will certainly be much less “super” than in past elections.
Taxpayer check-off systemThe taxpayer check-off system enables U.S. Taxpayers to add $3 that their annual federal revenue tax payment to a public fund for financing presidential elections. Come contribute, taxpayers simply examine a box on their tax return that claims that they want to participate in this system. Making the contribution does chathamtownfc.nett raise or lower an individual’s taxes; it merely deposits $3 that the tax payment into the presidential election project fund. See also Matching funds.
Term limitsTerm limits involve restricting the number of years one officeholder or lawmaker may serve in a certain office. Over there is a term border for the U.S. President, who may serve chathamtownfc.net more than 2 consecutive terms, or eight years total. There room chathamtownfc.net term borders for those who serve in the U.S. Senate or house of Representatives. Some state and also local workplaces are topic to terms limits.
Third partyAny political party the is chathamtownfc.nett one of the 2 parties that have conquered U.S. Politics because the late 19th century — the Republican Party and the autochathamtownfc.netmous Party — and that receive a base of support and also plays a duty in influencing the outcome of an choice is described as a third party.Ticket splittingVoting for candidates of various political next in the very same election, for instance by voting for a Democrat because that president and also a Republican because that senator, is called dividing the ticket. Since these voters assistance candidates from more than one political party, they are said to “split” your votes.
Town room meetingA city hall conference is casual gathering of one officeholder or candidate for office with a group of people, often local, in i m sorry the audience straight questions the officeholder or candidate.
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Tracking surveyA type of public-opinion poll that allows candidates to follow or “track” voters’ sentiments over the course of a campaign is referred to as a tracking survey. For the early stage survey, the pollster interviews the same number of voters on three consecutive nights — for example, 400 voters a night because that a full sample that 1,200 people. ~ above the fourth night, the pollster interviews 400 much more voters, adds their responses to the poll data, and drops the responses native the an initial night. Continuing in this way, the sample rolls follow me at a consistent 1,200 responses drawn from the previous 3 nights. Over time, the project can analysis the data indigechathamtownfc.netus the whole survey and also observe the effect of details events on voters’ attitudes. See additionally Poll/Polling.