Identify the 4 main tissue typesDiscuss the attributes of each tissue typeRelate the structure of each tissue kind to their functionDiscuss the embryonic origin of tissueIdentify the three significant germ layersIdentify the main varieties of organization membranes

The hatchet tissue is provided to describe a team of cells discovered together in the body. The cell within a tissue share a usual embryonic origin. Microscopic observation reveals the the cell in a tissue share morphological features and are i ordered it in one orderly pattern the achieves the tissue’s functions. Indigenous the evolutionary perspective, tissues appear in more facility organisms. Because that example, multicellular protists, old eukaryotes, do not have cells organized into tissues.

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Although there space many species of cell in the human body, they are organized into four vast categories that tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Each of this categories is identified by specific functions that add to the all at once health and maintenance that the body. A disruption of the structure is a sign of injury or disease. Such alters can it is in detected v histology, the microscopic research of tissue appearance, organization, and function.

The Four species of Tissues

Epithelial tissue, likewise referred to as epithelium, refers to the sheets that cells that cover exterior surfaces of the body, lines inner cavities and also passageways, and also forms details glands. Connective tissue, together its surname implies, binding the cells and organs the the human body together and also functions in the protection, support, and also integration that all parts of the body. Muscle tissue is excitable, responding to stimulation and also contracting to carry out movement, and occurs together three significant types: bones (voluntary) muscle, smooth muscle, and also cardiac muscle in the heart. Nervous tissue is additionally excitable, enabling the propagation the electrochemical signal in the form of nerve impulses that communicate in between different regions of the human body (Figure 1).

The following level of organization is the organ, wherein several types of tissues come together to kind a working unit. Just as discovering the framework and duty of cell helps you in your study of tissues, understanding of tissues will assist you understand just how organs function. The epithelial and connective tissues are debated in detail in this chapter. Muscle and also nervous tissues will be discussed only summary in this chapter.

Embryonic beginning of Tissues

The zygote, or fertilized egg, is a single cell developed by the combination of an egg and also sperm. After ~ fertilization the zygote offers rise to rapid mitotic cycles, generating numerous cells to form the embryo. The an initial embryonic cells generated have the capacity to differentiate into any form of cabinet in the human body and, as such, are called totipotent, definition each has the capacity to divide, differentiate, and also develop into a brand-new organism. As cell proliferation progresses, three major cell lineages are developed within the embryo. Every of these lineages of embryonic cells creates the distinctive germ layers from which all the tissues and organs of the human being body ultimately form. Every germ great is determined by its loved one position: ectoderm (ecto- = “outer”), mesoderm (meso- = “middle”), and also endoderm (endo- = “inner”). Figure 2 reflects the varieties of tissues and organs linked with the each of the three germ layers. Note that epithelial tissue originates in all 3 layers, vice versa, nervous tissue derives mainly from the ectoderm and muscle organization from mesoderm.

Figure 2. Embryonic beginning of tissues and major Organs

View this slideshow come learn an ext about stem cells.

View this slideshow to learn an ext about stem cells. Just how do somatic stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells?

Tissue Membranes

A tissue membrane is a thin layer or sheet of cells the covers the outside of the human body (for example, skin), the guts (for example, pericardium), internal passageways that bring about the exterior of the human body (for example, abdominal muscle mesenteries), and also the lining that the moveable share cavities. There space two an easy types of tissue membranes: connective tissue and epithelial membrane (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Organization Membranes. The two large categories of organization membranes in the body are (1) connective tissue membranes, which incorporate synovial membranes, and also (2) epithelial membranes, which encompass mucous membranes, serous membranes, and the cutaneous membrane, in other words, the skin.

Connective tissue Membranes

The connective tissue membrane is formed solely from connective tissue. This membranes encapsulate organs, such together the kidneys, and line ours movable joints. A synovial membrane is a type of connective tissue membrane that lines the cavity of a easily movable joint. Because that example, synovial membranes surround the joints of the shoulder, elbow, and knee. Fibroblasts in the inner class of the synovial membrane relax hyaluronan into the share cavity. The hyaluronan efficiently traps accessible water to type the synovial fluid, a herbal lubricant that allows the bones of a share to move freely versus one one more without much friction. This synovial fluid readily exchanges water and also nutrients through blood, as execute all human body fluids.

Epithelial Membranes

The epithelial membrane is written of epithelium attached to a great of connective tissue, for example, your skin. The mucous membrane is likewise a composite that connective and epithelial tissues. Sometimes called mucosae, these epithelial membranes heat the body cavities and hollow passageways that open up to the exterior environment, and also include the digestive, respiratory, excretory, and also reproductive tracts. Mucous, produced by the epithelial exocrine glands, consist of the epithelial layer. The basic connective tissue, called the lamina propria (literally “own layer”), aid support the delicate epithelial layer.

A serous membrane is an epithelial membrane written of mesodermally derived epithelium referred to as the mesothelium that is sustained by connective tissue. This membranes line the coelomic caries of the body, that is, those cavities that carry out not open up to the outside, and also they cover the organs situated within those cavities. Castle are essentially membranous bags, v mesothelium lining the inside and also connective organization on the outside. Serous liquid secreted through the cells of the slim squamous mesothelium lubricates the membrane and reduces abrasion and friction between organs. Serous membranes are established according locations. Three serous membranes heat the thoracic cavity; the 2 pleura the cover the lungs and the pericardium the covers the heart. A fourth, the peritoneum, is the serous membrane in the abdominal muscle cavity the covers abdominal muscle organs and forms double sheets that mesenteries the suspend plenty of of the cradle organs.

The skin is one epithelial membrane likewise called the cutaneous membrane. It is a stratified squamous epithelial membrane resting on height of connective tissue. The apical surface of this membrane is exposed come the external environment and is covered with dead, keratinized cell that help protect the human body from desiccation and pathogens.

Chapter Review

The human being body contains much more than 200 species of cells that deserve to all it is in classified right into four types of tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Epithelial tissues act together coverings managing the activity of materials throughout the surface. Connective tissue integrates the assorted parts that the body and also provides support and also protection to organs. Muscle tissue allows the body to move. Nervous tissues propagate information.

The research of the shape and also arrangement of cell in tissue is dubbed histology. All cells and tissues in the body derive from three germ great in the embryo: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Different species of tissues kind membranes that enclose organs, provide a friction-free interaction in between organs, and keep offal together. Synovial membranes space connective tissue membranes the protect and line the joints. Epithelial membrane are developed from epithelial organization attached come a class of connective tissue. There space three types of epithelial membranes: mucous, i beg your pardon contain glands; serous, i beg your pardon secrete fluid; and also cutaneous which renders up the skin.

Interactive attach Questions

View this slideshow come learn an ext about stem cells. Exactly how do somatic stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells?

Review Questions

1. Which of the complying with is no a type of tissue?


2. The process by i beg your pardon a less dedicated cell matures into a more specialized cell is referred to as ________.


3. Differentiated cells in a occurring embryo derive from ________.

endothelium, mesothelium, and epitheliumectoderm, mesoderm, and endodermconnective tissue, epithelial tissue, and muscle tissueepidermis, mesoderm, and endothelium

4. I beg your pardon of the adhering to lines the body cavities exposed come the exterior environment?

mesotheliumlamina propriamesenteriesmucosa

Critical reasoning Questions

1. Determine the four species of tissue in the body, and describe the significant functions of every tissue.

2. The zygote is defined as totipotent since it at some point gives climb to every the cell in her body including the highly dedicated cells of your nervous system. Define this transition, discussing the steps and processes that cause these devoted cells.

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3. What is the role of synovial membranes?


connective tissuetype of tissue that serves to organize in place, connect, and also integrate the body organs and systemsconnective tissue membraneconnective organization that encapsulates organs and also lines movable jointscutaneous membraneskin; epithelial tissue made up of a stratified squamous epithelial cells the cover the external of the bodyectodermoutermost embryonic germ layer from which the epidermis and also the nervous tissue deriveendoderminnermost embryonic germ layer indigenous which most of the digestive system and also lower respiratory system deriveepithelial membraneepithelium attached come a layer of connective tissueepithelial tissuetype of organization that serves generally as a covering or lining of human body parts, protecting the body; it additionally functions in absorption, transport, and secretionhistologymicroscopic research of tissue architecture, organization, and functionlamina propriaareolar connective organization underlying a mucous membranemesodermmiddle embryonic germ layer from which connective tissue, muscle tissue, and some epithelial tissue derivemucous membranetissue membrane that is covered by security mucous and lines tissue exposed to the outside environmentmuscle tissuetype of tissue that is qualified of contracting and generating stress in solution to stimulation; produces movement.nervous tissuetype of organization that is qualified of sending and receiving impulses through electrochemical signals.serous membranetype of organization membrane that lines human body cavities and also lubricates them through serous fluidsynovial membraneconnective tissue membrane the lines the cavities of openly movable joints, creating synovial fluid for lubricationtissuegroup of cells that are similar in form and perform related functionstissue membranethin layer or paper of cells the covers the outside of the body, organs, and also internal cavitiestotipotentembryonic cell that have the ability to identify into any form of cell and also organ in the body


Answers for review Questions


Answers for an important Thinking Questions

The four types of organization in the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and also nervous. Epithelial organization is do of great of cells that cover the surface of the body that come into contact with the exterior world, line internal cavities, and form glands. Connective tissue binds the cells and also organs of the body together and also performs numerous functions, especially in the protection, support, and integration the the body. Muscle tissue, i m sorry responds come stimulation and contracts to provide movement, is separated into three significant types: bones (voluntary) muscles, smooth muscles, and the cardiac muscle in the heart. Concerned tissue permits the human body to receive signals and also transmit information as electrical impulses indigenous one region of the human body to another.The zygote divides into countless cells. As these cells become specialized, they lose their ability to distinguish into every tissues. At very first they type the three major germ layers. Following the cell of the ectodermal germ layer, castle too become more minimal in what they deserve to form. Ultimately, some of these ectodermal cells end up being further restricted and differentiate in to nerve cells.Synovial membranes space a kind of connective tissue membrane the supports mobility in joints. The membrane present the joint cavity and also contains fibroblasts that develop hyaluronan, which leads to the production of synovial fluid, a organic lubricant that allows the skeletal of a joint to relocate freely against one another.