Plate Tectonics and also Volcanic Activity

A volcano is a function in Earth"s crust wbelow molten rock is squeezed out onto the Earth"s surchallenge. Alengthy via molten rock, volcanoes also release gases, ash, and also solid rock.

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A volcano is a function in Earth’s crust where molten rock is squeezed out onto the Earth’s surface. This molten rock is referred to as magma when it is beneath the surchallenge and also lava when it erupts, or flows out, from a volcano. Along with lava, volcanoes additionally release gases, ash, and solid rock.
Volcanoes come in many type of different forms and also sizes yet are many commonly cone-shaped hills or hills. They are uncovered throughout the world, developing ridges deep listed below the sea surconfront and also hills that are hundreds of meters high. About 1,900 volcanoes on Planet are taken into consideration active, meaning they show some level of occasional activity and are likely to erupt aobtain. Many type of others are dormant volcanoes, mirroring no current signs of exploding however most likely to end up being energetic at some point later on. Others are taken into consideration extinct.
Volcanoes are incredibly effective agents of readjust. Eruptions can create brand-new landcreates, however can likewise destroy every little thing in their path. About 350 million civilization (or around one out of eexceptionally 20 human being in the world) live within the “peril range” of an energetic volcano. Volcanologists carefully monitor volcanoes so they have the right to much better predict impfinishing eruptions and prepare adjacent populaces for potential volcanic risks that could enperil their security.
Many volcanoes form at the boundaries of Earth’s tectonic plates. These plates are expensive slabs of the Earth’s crust and also top mantle, which fit together favor pieces of a puzzle. These plates are not solved, but are constantly moving at a very sluggish rate. They relocate only a couple of centimeters per year. Sometimes, the plates collide with one another or relocate acomponent. Volcanoes are many widespread in these geologically active limits.
The 2 kinds of plate boundaries that are most most likely to create volcanic task are divergent plate boundaries and convergent plate boundaries.
At a divergent boundary, tectonic plates relocate acomponent from one one more. They never really separate because magma continuously moves up from the mantle right into this boundary, building new plate material on both sides of the plate boundary.
The Atlantic Ocean is house to a divergent plate boundary, a place called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Here, the North Amerihave the right to and Eurasian tectonic plates are relocating in oppowebsite directions. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, hot magma swells upward and also becomes component of the North Amerihave the right to and Eurasian plates. The upward activity and ultimate cooling of this buoyant magma creates high ridges on the sea floor. These ridges are interconnected, creating a continuous volcanic hill selection nearly 60,000 kilometers (37,000 miles)—the longest in the civilization.
Anvarious other divergent plate boundary is the East Pacific Rise, which sepaprices the enormous Pacific plate from the Nazca, Cocos, and also North Amerideserve to plates.
Vents and also fractures (additionally referred to as fissures) in these mid-sea ridges permit magma and gases to escape right into the ocean. This submarine volcanic activity accounts for approximately 75% of the average yearly volume of magma that reaches the Earth’s crust. Most submarine volcanoes are discovered on ridges countless meters below the sea surconfront.
Some sea ridges reach the sea surchallenge and also develop landdevelops. The island also of Iceland also is a part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The diverging Eurasian and North American plates resulted in the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (in 2010) and also Bardarbunga (in 2014). These eruptions were preceded by considerable rifting and also cracking on the ground surchallenge, which are likewise emblematic of diverging plate motion.
Of course, divergent plate borders likewise exist on land also. The East Afrihave the right to Rift is an example of a solitary tectonic plate being ripped in two. Along the Horn of Africa, the African plate is tearing itself into what is occasionally called the Nubian plate (to the west, including most of the existing African plate) and also the Somali plate (to the eastern, including the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean). Alengthy this divergent plate boundary are volcanoes such as Mount Nyiragongo, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and also Mount Kilimanjaro, in Kenya.
At a convergent plate boundary, tectonic plates relocate toward one one more and collide. Oftentimes, this collision pressures the denser plate edge to subduct, or sink beneath the plate edge that is less dense. These subduction zones have the right to create deep trenches. As the denser plate edge moves downward, the push and also temperature neighboring it rises, which causes changes to the plate that melt the mantle above, and the melted rock rises with the plate, sometimes getting to its surconfront as component of a volcano. Over countless years, the climbing magma can create a series of volcanoes recognized as a volcanic arc.
The majority of volcanic arcs deserve to be discovered in the Ring of Fire, a horseshoe-shaped string of about 425 volcanoes that edges the Pacific Ocean. If you were to drainpipe the water out of the Pacific Ocean, you would view a series of deep canyons (trenches) running parallel to equivalent volcanic islands and hill varieties. The Aleutian Islands, stretching from Alaska to Russia in the Bering Sea, for circumstances, run parallel to the Aleutian Trench, created as the Pacific plate subducts under the North American plate. The Aleutian Islands have 27 of the United States’ 65 historically energetic volcanoes.
The mighty Andes Mountains of South America run parallel to the Peru-Chile Trench. These hills are continually accumulated as the Nazca plate subducts under the South American plate. The Andes Mountains include the world’s highest energetic volcano, Nevados Ojos del Salacarry out, which rises to 6,879 meters (over 22,500 feet) along the Chile-Argentina border.
For many type of years, researchers have actually been trying to explain why some volcanoes exist thousands of kilometers amethod from tectonic plate limits.
The dominant concept, framed by Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilchild in 1963, claims that these volcanoes are developed by exceptionally warm areas resolved deep listed below Earth’s mantle. These hot spots are able to independently melt the tectonic plate over them, producing magma that erupts onto the peak of the plate.
In hot spots beneath the ocean, the tectonic activity creates a volcanic mound. Over millions of years, volcanic piles deserve to prosper till they reach sea level and also develop a volcanic island also. The volcanic island moves as component of its tectonic plate. The warm spot continues to be put, however. As the volcano moves farther from the warm spot, it goes extinct and also inevitably erodes ago into the ocean. A new and active volcano establishes over the hot spot, producing a continuous cycle of volcanism—and a string of volcanic islands tracing the tectonic plate’s activity over time.
For Wilchild and also many scientists, the finest instance of hot spot volcanism is the Hawaiian Islands. Experts think this volcanic chain of islands has been creating for at leastern 70 million years over a hot spot underneath the Pacific plate. Of all the lived in Hawaiian Islands, Kauai is situated farthest from the presumed hot spot and has actually the most eroded and also earliest volcanic rocks, dated at 5.5 million years. At the same time, on the “Big Island” of Hawaii—still fueled by the hot spot—the earliest rocks are much less than 0.7 million years old and also volcanic task proceeds to develop new land also.
Hot spots have the right to additionally create terrestrial volcanoes. The Yellowstone Supervolcano, for circumstances, sits over a warm spot in the middle of the North Amerideserve to plate, through a series of prehistoric caldperiods stretching across southerly Idaho. The Yellowrock hot spot fuels the geysers, warm springs, and also other geologic task at Yellowrock National Park, Wyoming.
While some information seem to prove Wilson’s hot spot concept, even more recent scientific research studies imply that these warm spots might be uncovered at even more shallow depths in the Earth’s mantle and may migrate progressively over geologic time rather than stay fixed in the very same spot.
While volcanoes come in a selection of shapes and also sizes, they all share a few crucial attributes. All volcanoes are linked to a reservoir of molten rock, dubbed a magma chamber, below the surconfront of the Planet. When pressure inside the chamber builds up, the buoyant magma travels out a surchallenge vent or series of vents, with a main interior pipe or series of pipes. These eruptions, which differ in dimension, material, and explosiveness, produce different types of volcanoes.
Stratovolcanoes are some of the the majority of easily recognizable and imposing volcanoes, with steep, conic peaks increasing approximately a number of thousand also meters above the landscape. Also recognized as composite volcanoes, they are made up of layers of lava, volcanic ash, and also fragmentized rocks. These layers are accumulated over time as the volcano erupts through a vent or group of vents at the summit’s crater.
Mount Rainier is an impressive stratovolcano that rises 4,392 meters (14,410 feet) over sea level simply southern of Seattle, Washington. Over the past fifty percent million years, Mount Rainier has actually created a collection of alternating lava eruptions and debris eruptions. These eruptions have given Mount Rainier the classical layered structure and conic form of a compowebsite volcano. The volcano’s peak has additionally been carved dvery own by a collection of glaciers, providing it a craggy and rugged shape.
Voldeserve to de Fuego and also Acatenango are a pair of stratovolcanoes that stand more than 3,700 meters (12,000 feet) above sea level close to Antigua, Guatemala. While the volcanoes are thought about twins bereason of their equivalent form and also size, they are made of various kinds of lava and have actually distinctive eruption backgrounds. While Acatenango erupts infrequently today, Fuego is taken into consideration to be the most energetic volcano in Central America, erupting more than 60 times given that 1524.
Shield volcanoes are constructed almost specifically of lava, which flows out in all directions throughout an eruption. These flows, made of extremely fluid basalt lava, spcheck out over excellent ranges and also cool in thin layers. With time, the layers develop up and produce a gently sloping dome that looks prefer a warrior’s shield. While they are not as eye-recording as their steep stratovolcano cousins, shield volcanoes are regularly much bigger in volume because of their wide, expansive structure.
Shield volcanoes make up the entirety of the Hawaiian Islands. The Kilauea and Mauna Loa shield volcanoes, situated on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, increase from the sea floor even more than 4,500 meters (15,000 feet) below sea level. The summit of Mauna Loa stands at 4,168 meters (13,677 feet) over sea level and more than 8,500 meters (28,000 feet) above the sea floor, making it the world’s largest energetic volcano—and also, by some accounts, the world’s tallest mountain. The smaller volcano, Kilauea, has actually been erupting repetitively considering that 1983, making it among the world’s a lot of energetic volcanoes.
The Galapagos Islands are likewise consisted of of a series of shield volcanoes. Isabela and Fernandina islands have flatter tops than other shield volcanoes because lava erupts from fissures approximately their tops and along ridges at their bases. As an outcome, the volcanoes climb at the top and grow outside at the bottom—yet not in the middle, making them look prefer an “inverted soup bowl.”
Pyroclastic cones are the many prolific form of volcano on Earth. They deserve to construct as component of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, or separately. Also recognized as cinder cones, they form after violent eruptions blow lava right into the air. In the atmosphere, the lava fragments solidify and autumn as “cinders” around a singular vent. Often created from a single eruption or short series of eruptions, pyroclastic cones just stand at heights of tens of meters to numerous meters.
Parícutin, Mexico, is a distinct pyroclastic cone. It was the initially volcano to be stupassed away for its entire life cycle. Emerging from a cornarea in 1943, Parícutin’s explosive eruptions caused it to reach 80% of its height of 424 meters (1,391 feet) throughout its initially year of activity. In that time, lava and also ash hidden the nearby town of San Juan. Over the next eight years, Parícutin constructed the remainder of its cone—and also then went quiet. Geologists learned a good deal around the development of volcanoes in Parícutin’s brief, nine-year life.
Lava domes are prefer shield volcanoes in that they are built entirely of lava. This lava, however, is too thick and also sticky to move great ranges. It simply piles up approximately the volcano vent. Lava domes are frequently found on the summit or flanks of a volcano, however they have the right to likewise construct independently. Like pyroclastic cones, they just reach a few hundred meters, as they are formed during singular eruptions or slow lava releases.
One of the many iconic lava domes arisen after the destructive 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée on the island of Martinique. For nearly a year, a lava dome flourished out of a summit crater produced from the eruption, getting to a height of even more than 300 meters (1,000 feet). Known as the Tower of Pelée, the obelisk-shaped framework was twice the height of the Washington Monument. It eventually fell down right into a pile of rubble after 11 months of growth.
Some volcanoes endure such large, explosive eruptions that they release most of the product in their magma chamber. This reasons the land roughly the erupting vent or vents to collapse inwardly, creating circular depressions dubbed calderas. Depending on their intensity and duration, volcanic eruptions deserve to create calderas as much as 100 kilometers wide.
Crater Lake, Oregon, is in a caldera around 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide. Crater Lake’s caldera resulted from an eruption that emerged more than 7,000 years back. The volcano"s magma chamber fell down, then filled with water from rain and also scurrently, producing the lake. Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States.
Deception Island, situated off the shore of Antarctica, knowledgeable a violent eruption around 10,000 years back. The volcano summit collapsed, developing a caldera 7 kilometers (4.4 miles) wide and flooded through seawater. The caldera gives Deception Island its horseshoe shape, which opens to the sea via a narrow channel. Deception Island’s unique geologic framework makes it among the just areas in the people where ocean vessels have the right to sail straight right into an active volcano.
Much prefer caldperiods, craters are depressions left after a volcano experiences a huge eruption. While caldages are created by the collapse of material inside a volcano, craters are formed as materials explode out from a volcano. Craters are usually much smaller than caldages, only extending to a maximum of about one kilometer (.62 mile) in diameter.
Many volcanoes have actually multiple craters caused by different eruptions. The Maly Semiachik volcano, situated on the Kamchatka Peninsula in far eastern Russia, has six craters at its summit. The youngest of these craters, Troitskies, filled in with water and snowmelt, developing a lake 140 meters (459 feet) deep. The lake is highly acidic, as volcanic gases continue to be released right into the water from the energetic volcano below.
Lava lakes are also found in volcanic craters. Erta Ale, a volcano in Ethiopia, has a lava lake in its summit crater. Lava lakes are wright here magma has bubbled as much as the surface and pooled in a crater. Volcanologists deserve to fly over Erta Ale’s summit crater to check out exactly how the lava lake is behaving and predict future behavior.
Volcanic eruptions are as varied as volcanoes themselves—which is to say, incredibly diverse! A few of the means volcanologists have classified these eruptions are based upon the heights they reach, the kinds of products they eject, and the explosiveness of these ejections.
Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest eruption kind. They are characterized by secure lava eruptions recognized as lava fountains or fire fountains. Lava fountains are able to reach heights of up to 2 kilometers (1.2 miles). The extremely liquid lava associated via Hawaiian eruptions flows quickly ameans from the volcano summit, frequently producing fiery rivers and also lakes of lava within depressions on the neighboring landscape.
These eruptions are called after the Hawaiian Islands, wright here they the majority of regularly happen. Kilauea, which has actually been erupting repeatedly considering that 1983, has actually produced lava flows covering even more than 100 square kilometers (37 square miles) on the island of Hawaii. These flows repeatedly destroy residences and neighborhoods in their course, while likewise including brand-new coast to the island.
Strombolian eruptions are defined by short-lived outbursts of lava quite than steady fountaining. The lava is thicker and has actually a greater gas content than that of Hawaiian eruptions. Large gas bubbles rise from the magma chamber, pushing the pasty lava upward until the bubbles explode at the summit vent. These explosions have the right to reach heights as much as 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) although a lot of don’t go greater than a few hundred meters into the air.
Strombolian eruptions are named after the Mediterranean island also of Stromboli, Italy. Considered by many type of to be the many active volcano on Earth, Stromboli has been erupting practically repetitively for 2,000 years. The island’s eruptions are virtually constantly Strombolian in nature: Small gas explosions eject blobs of lava right into the air a pair of times per hour.
Vulcanian eruptions are short-lived however much even more explosive than Strombolian eruptions. Very thick lava reasons gas press to build up in the magma chamber. When this pressure is ultimately released it creates canon-favor explosions that can travel much faster than 350 meters per second (800 miles per hour). Lava, rock, and also ash are thrust up to 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) in the air, although many eruption columns are in between 5 and also 10 kilometers high. These plumes of material have the ability to drift moderate distances amethod from the eruption site.
The 2013 vulcanian eruption of Sakurajima, on the island of Kyushu, Japan, spanned the adjacent city of Kagoshima in a thick coat of ash.
Reaching as high as 50 kilometers (35 miles) in the environment, Plinian eruptions are the largest of all eruption forms. Much like vulcanian eruptions, they eject products at speeds of hundreds of meters per second. Plinian eruptions, however, are more continual than the coughing fits of vulcanian eruptions. These constant eruptions outcome from the volcano’s magma and also thriving gas bubbles rising at a comparable velocity.
Plinian eruptions are the many disastrous form of eruption. They release a deadly mixture of lava, ash, and also volcanic rocks such as scoria and pumice, which have the right to loss kilometers amethod from the eruption site. They are also identified by pyroclastic flow, a fluid mixture of fragmentised products and also very warm, toxic gases.
In 79 CE, a collection of Plinian eruptions from Mount Vesuvius buried the adjacent Roguy cities of Pompeii and also Herculaneum (in what is this day Italy). The cities and also their 13,000 residents were buried in volcanic ash and also rock. Rainloss combined via the ash and created a concrete-choose substance that kept the city for hundreds of years.
Surtseyan eruptions happen wright here magma or lava interacts with water, a lot of frequently once an undersea volcano reaches the sea surconfront. Anvarious other term for this kind of interaction is a phreatomagmatic eruption. When heated quickly by lava, water flashes to steam and expands violently, creating the a lot of explosive of all eruption forms. This aggressive interactivity in between water and also warm is able to fragment lava right into exceptionally fine grains of ash that have the right to reach heights of 20 kilometers (12.4 miles).
Tonga’s islands of Hunga Tonga and also Hunga Ha"apai are actually the tops of a single, large underwater volcano. In 2009, the volcano erupted for numerous days, bring about steam and ash to explode from the water to altitudes of 5 kilometers (3.1 miles). While the eruptions killed all indicators of wildlife on and about the islands, it likewise added thousands of square meters of land also to Hunga Ha’apai.
Volcanoes are some of Earth’s the majority of potent organic risks and also agents of change. They release enormous amounts of energy and also material, engaging organic procedures that deserve to modify landscapes at a local, neighborhood, and also even global range.
Many kind of volcanic products and also procedures pose a risk to huguy, animal, and also various other ecological neighborhoods.
Volcanoes consistently release volcanic gases that have the right to be dangerous at focused levels. Carbon dioxide and fluorine can collect in soil or volcanic ash, bring about crop failure, animal fatality and also deformity, and also huma disease.
Volcanic eruptions can likewise release massive amounts of sulfur dioxide, which rises right into the stratosphere. Tright here, it reflects incoming solar radiation while taking in outgoing land also radiation, resulting in a cooling of the Earth’s temperature.
In too much cases, these “volcanic winters” can reason chop failures and dramatically influence weather. The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, Indonesia, cooled the average global temperature by as much as 3° Celsius (5.4° Fahrenheit), causing the “year without a summer.”
The enormous power of volcanic eruptions have the right to cause big landslides that relocate at speeds of even more than 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour). Mount St. Helens, Washington, is a stratovolcano that had actually an explosive Plinian eruption in 1980. The eruption produced the largest landslide in tape-recorded history, extending a 36-kilometer (14-mile) area of land with ash and also rocks. Reaching speeds of 50 to 80 meters (165 to 260 feet) per second, the landslide had actually sufficient power to surge over a ridge 400 meters (1,312 feet) high.
Landslides deserve to mix via neighboring rivers, ice, snow, or rain to create watery mixtures called lahars. This mixture of water, rock, and also debris creates a sludge that deserve to obliteprice nearly anything in its route. The 1985 eruption of Nevaexecute del Ruiz, Colombia, resulted in little lahars of rock, ash, and melted snow to circulation down right into the surrounding river valleys. The lahars obtained momentum and size as they traveled the riverbeds, eventually destroying even more than 5,000 dwellings and also killing even more than 23,000 world.
Explosive eruptions occasionally produce pyroclastic flows, a mixture of warm rock pieces and also toxic gases that relocate virtually prefer a liquid out and ameans from the volcano. Reaching speeds greater than 80 kilometers per hour (50 miles per hour) and also temperatures between 200-700° Celsius (392-1292° Fahrenheit), pyroclastic flows tear down, shatter, bury, or burn anypoint in their path.
Pyroclastic flows are responsible for the haunting numbers from Pompeii and also Herculaneum, Italy. While many scientists thought residents of Pompeii suffocated to fatality from volcanic gases released in the time of Mount Vesuvius’ eruption in 79 CE, brand-new research studies imply that they actually died from too much warm created by the volcano’s pyroclastic circulation.
Volcanologist Giuseppe Mastrolorenzo and the Italian National Institute for Geophysics and also Volcanology recently discovered that the pyroclastic circulation that reached Pompeii produced temperatures of approximately 300° Celsius (570° Fahrenheit). These extreme temperatures are able to kill world in a fraction of a 2nd, leading to them to spasm in contorted postures choose those found amongst the plaster casts of Vesuvius’ victims.
Huge plumes of volcanic ash have the right to spcheck out over huge locations of the skies, turning daylight into finish darkness and inhibiting air web traffic. (Throughout the eruption of Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull in 2011, flights to and from north Europe were suspended for even more than a week.) Volcanic ash conducts electricity when wet and also can contain focused levels of toxic products, posing risks to people that come in close contact with it on land.
The 1994 double eruption of Vulhave the right to and also Tavurvur in Papua New Guinea extended the nearby city of Rabaul in a layer of ash up to 75 centimeters (about 2 feet) deep. Rains turned the ash into a cement-prefer substance that was heavy enough to collapse 80% of the structures in the city.
Volcanic hazards deserve to be incredibly dangerous to humale life. In the United States alone, 54 volcanoes are a really high or high threat to public security. By very closely surveillance volcanic task, volcanologists can warn human being of impfinishing eruptions. While these warnings are not precise predictions, they execute provide areas via the practical time they should protect themselves versus volcanic risks and encertain their security.
Volcanologists predict volcanic task by taking real-time dimensions and comparing them versus what occurred in the previous. They usage a range of tools and technologies to monitor temperatures, gas egoals, water levels, ground motions, and also transforms in the landscape. These dimensions paint a clear portrait of a volcano’s current state, which volcanologists then analyze against historical information. Volcanologists concern eruption warnings as soon as these measurements stray much from the norm or mirror those that preceded a historical eruption.
Different nations usage different systems to worry eruption warnings to the public. All of these devices categorize their advises based upon the probcapability and also severity of an impfinishing eruption. Common volcanic habits is frequently stood for by the number 1 or the color green, while an brewing and potentially terrible eruption is frequently represented by the number 4 or the shade red.
A variety of international establishments lead the method in volcanic surveillance and study, giving inhelpful information to scientists, volcanologists, and also the public afavor. The Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Program records current task for all the volcanoes on the world through publicly available data, reports, and also images. The regime also keeps the world’s just archive of volcanic activity from the last 10,000 years.
As part of the UN Internationwide Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, the Internationwide Association of Volcanology and also Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) created a list of 16 "Decade Volcanoes" to study because of the high hazard they pose to public safety and security. Mount Nyiragongo in Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, is dangerously cshed to the city of Goma. Its 2002 eruption killed 50 world and also compelled approximately 450,000 human being to evacuate their communities. The Santa María Volcano, which sits ideal above the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, has been continuously erupting considering that 2003. The Decade Volcanoes routine has actually carried together geologists, volcanologists, and also federal government officials to very closely study these volcanoes and produce risk-mitigation plans for potential eruptions.

Volcanoes are such effective pressures of nature that many cultures in volcanically energetic areas have actually sophisticated mythologies sustaining gods and also goddesses of volcanoes.
Vulcan (for whom volcanoes are named) is a Romale god.Hephaestus is a Greek god from whom Vulhave the right to arisen.Pele is a Hawaiian goddess.Ruaumoko is a Maori god.Xiahtecuhtli is an Aztec god.Ayanju is a Yoruba orisha, or deity.Kagu-Tsuchi is a Japanese kami, or heart.
One of the many mysterious forms of volcanic eruptions is a subglacial eruption, which takes area on ice-extended volcanoes. Subglacial eruptions regularly cause flooding, as glaciers are heated by hot magma and volcanic gas. This sudden, violent flooding of glacial meltwater is called a jökulhlaup.

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The “Decade Volcanoes” create a list of what might be thought about the most hazardous volcanoes on the earth. The 16 decade volcanoes are:
Avachinsky-Koryakskies, RussiaColima, MexicoEtna, ItalyGaleras, ColombiaMauna Loa, USAMerapi, IndonesiaNyiragongo, Dem. Rep. of the CongoRainier, USASakurajima, JapanSanta Maria/Santiaguito, GuatemalaSantorini, GreeceTaal, PhilippinesTeide, Spain (Canary Islands)Ulawun, Papau New GuineaUnzen, JapanVesuvius, Italy
The biggest volcano recognized to humankind is not actually on Earth! Olympus Mons is a dormant shield volcano on Mars that is taller than three Mount Everests and is around as wide as the entire Hawaiian Islands chain.
The a lot of volcanically energetic body in our solar device is not Earth at all. It’s Jupiter’s moon Io. At any kind of one time, Io has actually 400 active volcanoes, which deserve to shoot plumes as much as 500 kilometers (300 miles) into external space! In 2001, a volcano in Io’s Surt area produced the biggest eruption ever videotaped, covering 1,900 square kilometers (1,180 square miles), an area bigger than the city of Los Angeles.