L>Animal Biology note animal Biology #3 simple ANIMALS: SPONGES and CNIDARIA Kingdom Animalia contains all biology that develop from a hollowball of cells dubbed a blastula. Most animals have well-developedmotility. The simplest pets include the sponges (Porifera) and also the Cnidaria. Sponges room unsymmetrical or radiallysymmetrical, with plenty of cell varieties but no unique tissues; theirbodies contain many pores and sharp protective spicules.Coelenterates (phylum Cnidaria) space radially symmetrical, through two tissue layers (ectoderm and endoderm) bordering an all-purposegastrovascular cavity. Phylum Porifera (sponges): Aquatic animals with radial the opposite orirregular shapes. Water beginning by many incurrent pores thatoften result in a main cavity. Water may leave by an excurrent opening(osculum). No distinctive tissues, however many cell types: Epidermal cell (pinacocytes): outside lining Porocytes: Barrel-shaped pore cells Choanocytes: Flagellated "collar cells" that save water flow Amoebocytes: numerous kinds of amoeboid cells, consisting of some that secrete sharp spicules. Spicules: spicy needles or more complex shapes installed within sponges, to work in support and also as a defense versus predators. May be created of silica, calcite, or horny protein. Species of sponges include:Calcispongia (or Calcarea): tiny sponges through needle-like spicules do of calcite (CaCO3). Symmetry generally radial. Hyalospongia (or Hexactinellida): deep-water "glassy" sponges (often very beautiful) v spicules (usually six-pointed) made of silica (SiO2). Symmetry usually radial. Demospongia: Horny or "true" sponges (about 90% the all known species) through spicules made mainly of horny protein ("spongin," comparable to keratin) that often surrounds a needle-like main point of silica. Irregular forms (symmetry lost). Traditional "bath sponges" belonging here. Sponges and Cnidaria VIDEOS: Amoeboid locomotion (pseudopods) If needed, view (*) below Cnidaria — nematocysts shoot Ctenophora: comb jellies (*) If needed, copy URL; || AllProg >VideoLAN >VLC MediaPlayer; || Media >OpenNetworkStream > Phylum Cnidaria (coelenterates): Aquatic animals with two body layers(outer ectoderm and inner endoderm) separated by a jelly-likemesoglea; and an all-purpose gastrovascular cavity with asingle opening (mouth). Tentacles surround mouth and also have stinging cells (cnidocytes) containing stingers (nematocysts).Two significant body forms: Polyp: mouth directed upward, mesoglea thin, pet usually attached; Medusa: free-swimming "jellyfish" withthick mesoglea; mouth directed downward. course Hydrozoa: Life cycle contains both asexual polyps and sexually reproducing medusae (usually small). Solitary or colonial; some swarms have many types of individuals interconnected. course Scyphozoa: Solitary "jellyfish" with leading medusa stage. course Anthozoa: The biggest class, including sea anemones and also corals. Polyp stage dominant; no medusa. Mouth expand inward to type a tubular pharynx. Solitary or colonial. Phylum Ctenophora ("comb jellies"): A small group that marine animals with biradial symmetry (like a two-armed pinwheel), 2 huge tentacles, and also 8 comb-like rows the cilia. table of contents Syllabus Prev rev.

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