Muscles are called according to their shape, location, or a combination. Lock are more categorized according role such together flexion, extension, or rotation. Muscles and ligaments work together to assistance the spine, organize it upright, and also control movement during rest and also activity.

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Types of Vertebral MusclesGeneral Location
Forward flexorsAnterior
Lateral flexorsLateral
RotatorsLateral
ExtensorsPosterior

Skeletal muscle is striated (striped) in appearance. The is innervated, under voluntary control, and has the fastest contraction rate of every muscle. Before a muscle contracting, a nerve impulse originates in the mind and travels v the spinal cord come the muscle.Energy is needed for the muscle to contract (work). Mitochondria (cellular level) produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a chemistry cells need for energy. ATP is created as the mitochondria burn glucose (sugar). Blood vessels deliver the oxygen and also nutrients the mitochondria requirements to carry out a steady supply that ATP.

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Muscles of the Posterior Cervical and Upper Thoracic Spine1. Semispinalis Capitus (head rotation/pulls backward)2. Iliocostalis Cervicis (extends cervical vertebrae)3. Longissimus Cervicus (extends cervical vertebrae)4. Longissimus Capitus (head rotation/pulls backward)5. Longissimus Thoracis (extension/lateral flexion vertebral column, rib rotation)6. Iliocostalis Thoracis (extension/lateral flexion vertebral column, rib rotation)7.

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Semispinalis Thoracis (extends/rotates vertebral column)

Muscles of the Spinal Column

CERVICAL MUSCLESFUNCTIONNERVE
SternocleidomastoidExtends & rotates head, flexes vertebral columnC2, C3
ScalenusFlexes & rotates neckLower cervical
Spinalis CervicisExtends & rotates headMiddle/lower cervical
Spinalis CapitusExtends & rotates headMiddle/lower cervical
Semispinalis CervicisExtends & rotates vertebral columnMiddle/lower cervical
Semispinalis CapitusRotates head & pulls backwardC1 – C5
Splenius CervicisExtends vertebral columnMiddle/lower cervical
Longus Colli CervicisFlexes cervical vertebraeC2 – C7
Longus CapitusFlexes headC1 – C3
Rectus Capitus AnteriorFlexes headC2, C3
Rectus Capitus LateralisBends head laterallyC2, C3
Iliocostalis CervicisExtends cervical vertebraeMiddle/lower cervical
Longissimus CervicisExtends cervical vertebraeMiddle/lower cervical
Longissimus CapitisRotates head & pulls backwardMiddle/lower cervical
Rectus Capitus Posterior MajorExtends & rotates headSuboccipital
Rectus Capitus Posterior MinorExtends headSuboccipital
Obliquus Capitus InferiorRotates atlasSuboccipital
Obliquus Capitus SuperiorExtends & bends head laterallySuboccipital

THORACIC muscles FUNCTIONNERVE
Longissimus ThoracisExtension, lateral flexion the vertebral column, rib rotationDorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Iliocostalis ThoracisExtension, lateral flexion that vertebral column, rib rotationDorsal primary departments of spinal nerves
Spinalis ThoracisExtends vertebral columnDorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Semispinalis ThoracisExtends & rotates vertebral columnDorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Rotatores ThoracisExtends & rotates vertebral columnDorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves

LUMBAR MUSCLESFUNCTIONNERVE
Psoas Major

Flexes thigh at hip joint & vertebral column

L2, L3, periodically L1 or L4
Intertransversarii LateralisLateral flexion that vertebral columnVentral primary division of spinal nerves
Quadratus LumborumLateral flexion the vertebral columnT12, L1
InterspinalesExtends vertebral columnDorsal primary departments of spinal nerves
Intertransversarii MedialesLateral flexion the vertebral columnDorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
MultifidusExtends & rotates vertebral columnDorsal primary departments of spinal nerves
Longissimus LumborumExtends & rotates vertebral columnDorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves
Iliocostalis LumborumExtension, lateral flexion of vertebral column, rib rotationDorsal primary divisions of spinal nerves

Muscle FasciaFascia is thickened connective organization that envelops a muscle or a team of muscles. Superficial fascia is found directly under the skin. Epimysium is the fascia closest come the muscle. Perimysium divides the muscle into facicles – muscle fibers. Endomysium is another kind of connective organization that covers every muscle fiber.