"The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe is just one of the most renowned poems ever written. It lugged its author worldwide fame and also has commonly been analyzed, performed, and also parodied. Yet what around this poem makes it therefore special?

In this guide, we give you a finish overview the "The Raven," discussing whatever from the sad story behind that creation and also what is actually going on between the narrator and also the raven, come its themes and the poetic tools it uses so effectively.

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The raven Poem: full Text

Below is the finish text the The crow poem, written by Edgar Allan Poe and also published in 1845. It consists of 18 stanzas and a complete of 108 lines.

Once top top a midnight dreary, while i pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore—
While ns nodded, practically napping, all of sudden there come a tapping,
As of some one tenderness rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
""Tis part visitor," ns muttered, "tapping at my room door—
Only this and nothing more."
Ah, distinctly ns remember it remained in the cold December;
And each different dying ember wrought that is ghost ~ above the floor.
Eagerly i wished the morrow;—vainly I had sought come borrow
From my books surcease that sorrow—sorrow because that the lost Lenore—
For the rare and radiant maiden who the angels surname Lenore—
Nameless right here for evermore.
And the silken, sad, unsure rustling the each purple curtain
Thrilled me—filled me with an excellent terrors never felt before;
So that now, to still the beating of my heart, ns stood repeating
""Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door—
Some late visitor entreating entrance at my room door;—
This it is and nothing more."
Presently mine soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
"Sir," claimed I, "or Madam, truly her forgiveness ns implore;
But the reality is ns was napping, and also so gently you come rapping,
And therefore faintly you came tapping, tapping in ~ my room door,
That i scarce was certain I heard you"—here i opened wide the door;—
Darkness there and nothing more.
Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming desires no mortal ever before dared come dream before;
But the silence to be unbroken, and also the stillness offered no token,
And the just word there spoken was the whispered word, "Lenore?"
This i whispered, and also an echo murmured back the word, "Lenore!"—
Merely this and nothing more.
Back into the room turning, every my soul within me burning,
Soon again ns heard a tapping somewhat louder 보다 before.
"Surely," claimed I, "surely the is something at my window lattice;
Let me see, then, what thereat is, and also this secret explore—
Let my heart be quiet a moment and this mystery explore;—
"Tis the wind and also nothing more!"
Open below I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter,
In there stepped a stately crow of the saintly job of yore;
Not the least obeisance make he; no a minute quit or stayed he;
But, v mien of mr or lady, perched over my room door—
Perched upon a bust the Pallas just above my room door—
Perched, and sat, and nothing more.
Then this ebony bird beguiling mine sad sophisticated into smiling,
By the grave and also stern decorum that the countenance it wore,
"Though her crest be shorn and also shaven, thou," i said, "art sure no craven,
Ghastly grim and old Raven hike from the Nightly shore—
Tell me what your lordly name is ~ above the Night"s Plutonian shore!"
Quoth the raven "Nevermore."
Much i marvelled this ungainly bird to hear discourse therefore plainly,
Though its answer little meaning—little relevancy bore;
For us cannot assist agreeing that no living human being being
Ever yet was blessed v seeing bird above his room door—
Bird or beast top top the sculptured bust above his room door,
With together name together "Nevermore."
But the Raven, sit lonely on the placid bust, speak only
That one word, together if his spirit in the one word that did outpour.
Nothing farther climate he uttered—not a feather climate he fluttered—
Till ns scarcely an ext than muttered "Other friends have flown before—
On the morrow he will leave me, together my Hopes have actually flown before."
Then the bird claimed "Nevermore."
Startled at the stillness damaged by answer so suitably spoken,
"Doubtless," said I, "what the utters is its just stock and store
Caught from part unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster
Followed fast and followed quicker till his songs one load bore—
Till the dirges that his Hope that melancholy burden bore
Of ‘Never—nevermore"."
But the Raven still beguiling every my an elaborate into smiling,
Straight I rolled a cushioned chair in former of bird, and bust and also door;
Then, upon the velvet sinking, ns betook myself to linking
Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore—
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and ominous bird the yore
Meant in croaking "Nevermore."
This i sat engaged in guessing, but no valuation expressing
To the bird whose fiery eye now melted into mine bosom"s core;
This and an ext I satellite divining, with my head at lull reclining
On the cushion"s velvet lining that the lamp-light gloated o"er,
But whose velvet-violet lining with the lamp-light gloating o"er,
She chandelier press, ah, nevermore!
Then, methought, the air prospered denser, perfumed from an unseen censer
Swung by Seraphim whose foot-falls tinkled top top the tufted floor.
"Wretch," i cried, "thy God afoot lent thee—by this angels the hath sent out thee
Respite—respite and nepenthe from her memories of Lenore;
Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this shed Lenore!"
Quoth the crow "Nevermore."
"Prophet!" said I, "thing the evil!—prophet still, if bird or devil!—
Whether Tempter sent, or whether storm tossed thee below ashore,
Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted—
On this residence by fear haunted—tell me truly, i implore—
Is there—is there enjoyment in Gilead?—tell me—tell me, ns implore!"
Quoth the crow "Nevermore."
"Prophet!" claimed I, "thing that evil!—prophet still, if bird or devil!
By the Heaven that bends over us—by the God us both adore—
Tell this soul with woe laden if, within the remote Aidenn,
It candlestick clasp a sainted maiden who the angels name Lenore—
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels surname Lenore."
Quoth the raven "Nevermore."
"Be the word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!" i shrieked, upstarting—
"Get thee ago into the tempest and also the Night"s Plutonian shore!
Leave no black color plume together a token of that lie thy heart hath spoken!
Leave mine loneliness unbroken!—quit the bust over my door!
Take thy beak from the end my heart, and also take thy type from turn off my door!"
Quoth the crow "Nevermore."
And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, quiet is sitting
On the pallid bust that Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have actually all the seeming the a demon"s that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o"er the streaming throw his shadow on the floor;
And my heart from the end that shadow the lies floating top top the floor
Shall be lifted—nevermore!

What Is "The Raven" About?

"The Raven" is a poem about a male who is heartbroken end the recent fatality of his lovely Lenore. Together he overcome a lonely December night in his room, a crow taps repeatedly on the door and also then the window. The man an initial thinks the noise is caused by a so late night visitor involved disturb him, and also he is surprised to uncover the raven as soon as he opens up the window shutter. After gift let in, the raven paris to and also lands on a bust the Pallas (an old Greek goddess that wisdom).

The male is enjoy it by exactly how serious the crow looks, and also he begins talking to the raven; however, the bird have the right to only reply by croaking "nevermore."

The male reflects aloud that the bird will certainly leave him quickly as all the world he cared about have left him. As soon as the raven replies "nevermore," the male takes it together the bird agreeing v him, back it"s unclear if the raven in reality understands what the man is saying or is simply speaking the one word that knows.

As the man continues to converse through the bird, he gradually loses his fixed on reality. He move his chair directly in former of the raven and also asks the despairing questions, including whether he and Lenore will certainly be rejoined in heaven. Now, rather of being just amused through the bird, the takes the raven"s repeated "nevermore" an answer as a sign that all his dark thoughts space true. He at some point grows angry and shrieks in ~ the raven, calling the a devil and also a thing of evil.

The poem ends through the crow still sit on the bust of Pallas and the narrator, seemingly defeated by his grief and also madness, advertising that his soul shall it is in lifted "nevermore."

Background ~ above "The Raven"

Edgar Allan Poe created "The Raven" throughout a difficult period in his life. His wife, Virginia, was enduring from tuberculosis, Poe was struggling to do money as an unknown writer, and he began drinking heavily and picking fights through coworkers and also other writers. It"s basic to see just how he could have conjured the dark and also melancholy the atmosphere of "The Raven."

It"s not known exactly how long Poe invested writing "The Raven," (guesses selection from almost everywhere to a solitary day to over a decade) but it"s believed most likely that he created the poem in the summer of 1844. In his essay, "The ideology of Composition," Poe stated that he determined to emphasis the city on the death of a beautiful woman because it is "unquestionably the many poetical topic in the world." He hope "The Raven" would make the famous, and, in the same essay, declared that he deliberately wrote the city to appeal come both "the popular and also the an important taste."

"The Raven" was published in the newspaper The new York Evening winter on January 29, 1845 (depending on the source, Poe was paid one of two people $9 or $15 for it). "The Raven" lugged Poe instant fame, although no the financial defense he to be looking for. critical reception to be mixed, with some famous writers such together Ralph Waldo Emerson and also William butler Yeats expressing their dislike for the poem. Regardless of those initial mixed reviews, The Raven poem has continued its popularity and also is now one that the most well-known poems in the world. Numerous parodies have been written, and also the poem has actually been referenced in whatever from The Simpsons to the NFL team the Baltimore Ravens (their mascot is even named "Poe").


Major Themes in "The Raven"

From The raven summary, we recognize it"s absolutely a melancholy poem, and most that its themes revolve approximately grim topics. Below are 3 of the most essential themes.

Theme 1: Grief

Grief is the overwhelming emotion in "The Raven," and the narrator is absolutely spend by his grief for his shed love, Lenore. In ~ the beginning of the poem, that tries to distract self from his woe by analysis a "volume of forget lore", but when the crow arrives, he automatically begins peppering it through questions about Lenore and becomes additional lost in his grief in ~ the raven"s response of "nevermore." by the end of the poem, the narrator is look at broken, stating the his soul will never ever again it is in "lifted" as result of his sadness.

Poe stated that the raven itself to be a prize of grief, specifically, that it stood for "mournful and never-ending remembrance." the purposely made decision a raven over a parrot (a bird species far better known for its capability to speak) since he assumed a raven suitable the dark tone of the city better.

Edgar Allan Poe had experienced a an excellent deal of grief by the moment he wrote "The Raven," and he had actually seen human being close to him leave, loss gravely ill, or die. That would have actually been well conscious of the consuming strength that grief deserve to have and also how it has actually the ability to blot every little thing else out.

Theme 2: Devotion

It"s the narrator"s deep love for Lenore that causes him together grief, and later rage and madness. Also though Lenore has actually died, the narrator quiet loves her and also appears unable to think that anything however her. In the poem, he speak of Lenore in superlatives, calling she "sainted" and "radiant." In his mind, she is completely perfect, virtually a saint. His love because that this woman who is no longer here distracts him from everything in his current life. through this theme, Poe is mirroring the strength of love and how that can proceed to be powerful even after death.

Theme 3: Rationality vs Irrationality

At the start of the poem, the narrator is rational sufficient to understand that Lenore is dead and he will not view her again. Once the raven very first begins repeating "nevermore," the realizes the the price is the bird"s "only stock and also store," and he won"t get another an answer no matter what he asks. He appears to even find the bird vaguely amusing.

However, as the poem continues, the narrator"s irrationality increases as that asks the raven inquiries it couldn"t possibly know and also takes its repeated an answer of "nevermore" to it is in a truthful and logical answer. He then descends further into madness, cursing the bird together a "devil" and "thing that evil" and thinking the feels angels bordering him prior to sinking into his grief. That has clearly come undone through the finish of the poem.

In "The Raven," Poe wanted to show the fine line between rational thought and madness and how solid emotions, such together grief, can push a human into irrationality, even throughout mundane interactions like the one the narrator had actually with the raven.

The 7 vital Poetic gadgets "The Raven" Uses

Edgar Allan Poe provides use of plenty of poetic tools in "The Raven" to develop a memorable and also moving piece of writing. Listed below we comment on seven that the most vital of these devices and also how they add to the poem.


Alliteration is the repeat of a sound or letter in ~ the beginning of multiple words in a work, and it"s probably the most noticeable poetic device in "The Raven." The city is full of alliteration, such as the phrases "weak and weary," "nearly napping," and also "followed fast and followed faster." This poetic machine helps provide the poem its renowned musicality and is among the reasons human being love come recite it.


An allusion is one indirect recommendation to something, and also Poe makes multiple allusions in "The Raven." Some an essential ones include:

The bust of Pallas the raven sit on describes Pallas Athena, the ancient Greek goddess that wisdom.

Nepenthe is a drug pointed out in Homer"s old epic The Odyssey, and it is purported to erase memories.

The balm of Gilead is a recommendation to a healing cream pointed out in the publication of Jeremiah in the Bible.

Aidenn describes the Garden that Eden, although the narrator most likely uses the to average "heaven" in general, as he wants to recognize if that"s whereby he and Lenore will reunite.

Ravens us are discussed in numerous stories, including Norse mythology and Ovid"s epic poem Metamorphoses.

Many readers would be well-versed in the books and also stories alluded come in the poem, and also they would have interpreted the recommendations without Poe having actually to explicitly describe where each was derived from. Doing so would certainly have broken the tension and also mood the the poem, so Poe is able come simply point to them.


Similar to alliteration, assonance is the repeat of collection sounds in one or more words discovered close together. It serves the same function as alliteration and also appears beginning in the an initial line that the poem, wherein the lengthy "e" sound is recurring in the indigenous "dreary," "weak," and also "weary."


The bulk of "The Raven" adheres to trochaic octameter, i beg your pardon is when there room eight trochaic feet per line, and also each foot has actually one emphasize syllable complied with by one unstressed syllable.

However, Poe actually used several species of meter, and also he is claimed to have actually based both the meter and also rhyming sample of "The Raven" turn off Elizabeth Barrett"s city " Lady Geraldine"s Courtship." Meter is really prominent in "The Raven," and, along with other poetic devices, helps do it together a famous poem come recite.


Many indigenous are repeated in "The Raven" the most famous being the word "nevermore" repetitive by the bird himself throughout the poem. Other generally repeated words and phrases in the poem include "Lenore," "chamber door" and also "nothing more." These all rhyme through "nevermore" and include to the emotion of despondency in the poem through emphasizing the raven"s cold answer come every question.


The rhyming sample in "The Raven" complies with the sample ABCBBB. The "B" lines all rhyme through "nevermore" and place additional emphasis ~ above the final syllable that the line.

There is also quite a bit of inner rhyme within the poem, such together the line "But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness provided no token," wherein "unbroken" rhymes through "token."

Internal rhyming occurs in the very first line of each stanza. It likewise occurs in the 3rd line and component of the 4th line of every stanza. In the instance "Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy spirit hath spoken!/Leave my loneliness unbroken!—quit the bust above my door!" "token" and "spoken" in the 3rd line of the stanza rhyme v "unbroken" in the 4th line of the stanza.


Onomatopoeia is once the surname of a word is associated with the sound it makes, and it occurs throughout "The Raven," such just like the native "rapping," "tapping," "shrieked," and also "whispered." It all helps add to the atmospheric quality of the poem and also makes readers feel as though they are really in the room through the narrator and also the raven.


What"s Next?

"Ozymandias" through Percy Shelley is an additional famous and often-studied poem. learn all around this poem and its well known line "look on mine works, ye mighty, and despair" in our complete guide to Ozymandias.

There space many much more poetic devices than those consisted of in "The Raven." review our overview on the 20 poetic gadgets you require to know so you can become an expert.

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