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You are watching: What is the shortest phase of mitosis

StatPearls . Sweetheart Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Genetics, Mitosis

Ibraheem Rehman; Aaishwariya Gulani; Mustafa Farooq; Brittany Simpson.

Author Information

Introduction

The capability to reproduce is one trait that sets life organisms apart from nonliving matter. The circulation of life is based on cell department or the reproduction that cells. Cell department can beat a different function in different organisms. Because that example, once a prokaryotes cell usually divides, it has totally reproduced because it gives rise come a brand-new organism. However, in multicellular eukaryotes, mitotic cell department is mostly used for growth and replacement or fix of injured cells. Most cell division results in genetically the same daughter cells.  First, a splitting cell replicates its DNA. After ~ a range of steps, the cabinet divides via motisis and also cytokinesis. Mitosis is one part of the cell cycle, which is comprehensive below. <1><2><3>


Cellular

The entirety of a cell’s DNA is called its genome. Throughout cell division, the totality genome is replicated exactly and also distributed come 2 daughter cells. A person cell frequently has around 2 meter of DNA. Because of the enormous length, the DNA must be extremely condensed come fit into the cell core of every cell. The highly condensed packages of DNA are termed chromosomes as soon as the cell has completed the synthesis phase and is ready to undergo mitosis. Assorted proteins help the DNA in folding compactly right into subunits that nucleosomes and chromatin. Human being somatic cells have 2 to adjust of 23 chromosomes for a complete of 46 chromosomes - 22 set of autosomes and 1 collection of sex chromosomes. A single collection of chromsomes is inherited from each parent.<4><5><6> DNA packaging is questioned in a different StatPearls reviews - Genetics, DNA Packaging and Genetics, Histone Code.


Mechanism

The mitotic phase is generally the shortest part of any kind of cell cycle. The largest section of the cell cycle, interphase, makes up 90% that a cell"s life cycle, and also is the stage for growing and performing the to move functions specific to the cell. The interphase is further separated into two G phases- G1 and G2- and also an S phase. Throughout these phases, the cell grows by producing various proteins and also cytoplasmic organelles. Throughout the S phase, the cell replicates that is genome in preparation for cell division or mitosis. Mitosis occurs during M phase, which occurs after interphase. <7>

Phases

Mitosis is traditionally divided right into 5 phases, which include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and cytokinesis. In interphase, a atom envelope surrounds the nucleus, the DNA is replicated in the S phase, and the sister chromatids sign up with together at the main portion that the chromosome - the centromere. Come organize the chromsome motion in the cabinet to help make division efficient and ensure all product is present in both daughter cells, the cell has actually centrosomes at each pole that the cell. Centrosomes to organize the yarn of the mitotic spindle throughout mitosis the will aid pull the sisters chromatids apart.

In prophase, the dyed fibers condense right into chromosomes that are visible through a irradiate microscope, every replicated chromosome appears as two the same sister chromatids joined at your centromeres, and the mitotic spindle starts to form. Also, the centrosomes start to relocate to the contrary poles that the cell, and also they are moved by the lengthening microtubules in between them.

In prometaphase, the nuclear envelope falls apart; microtubules have the right to now attack the atom area and also bind to several of the chromosomes. The microtubules tie at the kinetochores, dedicated protein frameworks at the centromere. No all microtubules connect with kinetochores. Part microtubules interact with microtubules expanding from the various other side of the cell.

In metaphase, the centrosomes have migrated come opposite poles of the cell. The chromosomes have all inside wall up at the metaphase plate in the middle of the cell, and also all chromosomes are attached come microtubules through their kinetochores. The metaphase bowl is an imaginary heat equidistant indigenous the spindle’s 2 poles.

In anaphase, the shortest phase of mitosis, the sisters chromatids rest apart, and the chromosomes start moving come opposite end of the cell. By the finish of anaphase, the 2 halves that the cell have actually an indistinguishable collection of chromosomes.

In telophase, 2 daughter nuclei form. The nuclear envelope us to reappear. DNA begins to de-condense if spindle microtubules begin to depolymerize. Mitosis, the department of one nucleus into 2, is now complete. Lastly, cytokinesis, i beg your pardon is the division of the cytoplasm, take away place and also the cell divides right into 2 different cells. In pet cells, this is completed through a cleavage furrow the pinches the cell in 2.

Regulation 

Throughout mitosis, certain checkpoints are vital to the extension of the process. If particular conditions space not met, mitosis halts. If any kind of of this checkpoints are bypassed without being complete, details pathology, such as cancer, can occur.<8><9>

There room three key checkpoints in mitosis, and those encompass the G1/S checkpoint, G2/M, and metaphase/ anaphase checkpoint. During the G1/S checkpoint, additionally known as the limit checkpoint, primary influencers of cell cycle progression incorporate growth factors, DNA damage, cabinet size, and cell nutrition.  The G2/M checkpoint, likewise known as the DNA replication checkpoint, is influenced by not correct DNA replication or DNA damage. The third checkpoint, additionally known as the spindle apparatus checkpoint, is inflienced by attachments of the mitotic spindle to all chromosomes. Only once all sister chromatids have been bound will certainly mitosis proceed right into anaphase.

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Cell Types 

It is crucial to identify that cells deserve to progress through the cabinet cycle in different manners. Cells can withdraw indigenous the active cell cycle, and also exist in a non-proliferating or quiescent state. This cells are claimed to it is in in the G0 phase. During G1, a cells decide to continue to be in G1 or leaving the active cell cycle and also enter right into the G0 phase. Different cell varieties are classified listed below on your characteristic cell cycle progressions. <11>

Labile cell varieties are cell that space constantly proliferating, via stem cells, in stimulate to change cells that have died or sloughed off. Some instances of labile cell species include skin epithelium, gastrointestinal epithelium, outstanding gland tissue, and also hematopoietic cabinet types. That is vital to recognize that chemotherapy supplied in cancer treaments has toxic effects against healthy cells, particularly cells undergoind quick renewal.<12>

Quiescent or steady cell types are generally in a non- dividing state, yet may enter the cell cycle  in respons to specific stimuli. Examples of secure cell species include: lymphocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and also others. 

Finally, long-term cell varieties are can not to proliferate, and are taken into consideration non- dividing. Instances of long-term cell species include cardiac and also skeletal muscle. <13>