Roots and Shoots

Terrestrial plants share a couple of defining qualities, structural and also useful. Perhaps the a lot of fundamental shared attribute of the majority of plants is their division right into shoots and roots. The separation between these 2 portions of the plant came about throughout the evolutionary relocate from an aqueous environment to a terrestrial one, and each component is crucial in its own method to the plants" capability to survive on land also.

Figure %: A Generalized Plant

The root, characterized as the percent of a plant beneath the soil, brings in vital water and also minerals from the soil. It also anchors the plant to the substrate, offering stcapability.

The shoot has all aerial plant frameworks such as stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. The shoot gathers the carbon dioxide and also light power necessary for photosynthesis, provides surencounters for gas exreadjust, and includes the plant"s reabundant organs. Each of these parts, the root and the shoot, is dependent on the various other, for roots cannot perform photosynthesis and shoots cannot take in water and inorganic nutrients.

Prevention of Water Loss

Plants share various other structural features as well, many of which stem from their adaptation to terrestrial problems. All plants have reabundant structures that proccasion desiccation (drying out) of the gametes. These sex organs, dubbed antheridia (male) and also archegonia (female), are themselves extended by a layer of jacket cells that aid to retain moisture.

In addition to the protection offered to the sex organs, the plant surfaces exposed to air are spanned in a waxy layer, referred to as a cuticle, that guards versus water loss. Gas exchange in plants is limited to pores in the leaf epidermis referred to as stomata, which deserve to open and also close to prevent extreme evaporation of water right into the setting.


Many plants are autotrophs, organisms that synthesize all their very own organic nutrients and also do not count on various other organisms for food. The factor that plants are autotrophic is that they carry out photosynthesis in their leaves. In the procedure of photosynthesis, the plant converts water, carbon dioxide, and light energy into oxygen, sugars, and more water. The oxygen is released into the bordering air with the stomata, and also the sugars (organic nutrients) are transported throughout the plant body to areas of expansion and also storage.

Alternation of Generations

Finally, plants undergo a life cycle that takes them through both haploid and diploid generations. The multicellular diploid plant framework is referred to as the sporophyte, which produces spores through meiotic department. The multicellular haploid plant structure is called the gametophyte, which is formed from the spore and offer rise to the haploid gametes. The fluctuation in between these diploid and also haploid stages that occurs in plants is called the alternation of generations.

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