To recognize the correlation between bonding and also the properties of solids. To classify solids together ionic, molecular, covalent (network), or metallic, where the general order of increasing strength the interactions.

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Crystalline solids fall into one of four categories. All four categories involve packing discrete molecule or atoms into a lattice or repeating array, despite network solids space a one-of-a-kind case. The categories are identified by the nature of the interactions holding the discrete molecules or atom together. Based on the nature of the forces that hold the ingredient atoms, molecules, or ions together, solids might be officially classified together ionic, molecular, covalent (network), or metallic. The sports in the relative strengths of these four types of interactions correlates nicely with their vast variation in properties.

Table \\(\\PageIndex1\\): Solids might be formally classified as ionic, molecular, covalent (network), or metallic Type of SolidInteractionPropertiesExamples
Ionic Ionic High melt Point, Brittle, Hard NaCl, MgO
Molecular Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole, London Dispersion Low melting Point, Nonconducting H2, CO2
Metallic Metallic Bonding Variable Hardness and Melting point (depending upon stamin of metallic bonding), Conducting Fe, Mg
Network Covalent Bonding High melt Point, Hard, Nonconducting C (diamond), SiO2 (quartz)

In ionic and also molecular solids, there are no chathamtownfc.netical bonds between the molecules, atoms, or ions. The solid is composed of discrete chathamtownfc.netical species held together by intermolecular pressures that room electrostatic or Coulombic in nature. This habits is most apparent for one ionic hard such as \\(NaCl\\), wherein the positively charged Na+ ions space attracted to the negatively fee \\(Cl^-\\) ions. Also in the lack of ions, however, electrostatic forces are operational. Because that polar molecule such together \\(CH_2Cl_2\\), the positive charged region of one molecular is attractive to the negative charged region of an additional molecule (dipole-dipole interactions). For a nonpolar molecule such together \\(CO_2\\), which has no permanent dipole moment, the random activity of electrons provides rise to temporary polarity (a momentary dipole moment). Electrostatic attractions between two temporary polarized molecule are called London Dispersion Forces.

Hydrogen bonding is a hatchet describing one attractive interaction in between a hydrogen atom from a molecule or a molecular fragment X–H in which X is an ext electronegative than H, and an atom or a group of atoms in the same or a various molecule, in which there is evidence of bond formation. (See the IUPAC Provisional referral on the definition of a hydrogen bond.) Dots space employed to suggest the visibility of a hydrogen bond: X–H•••Y. The attractive interaction in a hydrogen bond typically has a solid electrostatic contribution, but dispersion forces and weak covalent bonding are additionally present.

In metallic solids and also network solids, however, chathamtownfc.netical bonds organize the individual chathamtownfc.netical subunits together. The decision is necessary a single, macroscopic molecule with continuous chathamtownfc.netical bonding transparent the entire structure. In metallic solids, the valence electrons space no much longer exclusively linked with a single atom. Instead these electrons exist in molecule orbitals that are delocalized over plenty of atoms, producing an electronic band structure. The metallic decision essentially is composed of a collection of metal cations in a sea of electrons. This form of chathamtownfc.netical bonding is called metallic bonding.


Ionic Solids

You learned previously that an ionic solid is composed of positively and also negatively charged ions organized together by electrostatic forces. The toughness of the attractive pressures depends top top the charge and also size the the ions that compose the lattice and also determines plenty of of the physical properties that the crystal.

The lattice energy (i.e., the energy required to separate 1 mol the a crystalline ionic solid into its component ions in the gas phase) is straight proportional come the product that the ionic charges and also inversely proportional to the amount of the radii that the ions. Because that example, NaF and also CaO both crystallize in the face-centered cubic (fcc) salt chloride structure, and the sizes of their component ion are around the same: Na+ (102 pm) versus Ca2+ (100 pm), and F− (133 pm) versus O2− (140 pm). Because of the higher charge top top the ion in CaO, however, the lattice energy of CaO is almost four times better than that of NaF (3401 kJ/mol versus 923 kJ/mol). The pressures that host Ca and also O together in CaO are lot stronger than those that host Na and also F with each other in NaF, therefore the warmth of blend of CaO is virtually twice the of NaF (59 kJ/mol matches 33.4 kJ/mol), and also the melting suggest of CaO is 2927°C versus 996°C for NaF. In both cases, however, the values are large; the is, basic ionic compounds have actually high melting points and are fairly hard (and brittle) solids.


Molecular Solids

Molecular solids consist of of atoms or molecules organized to each other by dipole–dipole interactions, London dispersion forces, or hydrogen bonds, or any mix of these. The arrangement of the molecule in solid benzene is together follows:

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The framework of hard benzene. In hard benzene, the molecules space not arranged v their airplane parallel to one an additional but at 90° angles. (CC BY-NC-SA; cotton by request).

Because the intermolecular interaction in a molecule solid are relatively weak compared with ionic and covalent bonds, molecular solids have tendency to it is in soft, low melting, and easily vaporized (\\(ΔH_fus\\) and \\(ΔH_vap\\) space low). For comparable substances, the strength of the London dispersion pressures increases clearly with raising molecular mass. For example, the melting points that benzene (C6H6), naphthalene (C10H8), and also anthracene (C14H10), through one, two, and also three fused aromatic rings, room 5.5°C, 80.2°C, and 215°C, respectively. The enthalpies of fusion also boost smoothly within the series: benzene (9.95 kJ/mol) 6H5CH3) and m-xylene have melting clues of −95°C and −48°C, respectively, i beg your pardon are significantly lower than the melting allude of the lighter but more symmetrical analog, benzene.

Self-healing rubber is an instance of a molecule solid with the potential for far-reaching commercial applications. The material can stretch, yet when snapped into pieces it deserve to bond back together again with reestablishment the its hydrogen-bonding network there is no showing any sign the weakness. Among other applications, the is gift studied because that its use in adhesives and bicycle tires that will certainly self-heal.

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Toluene and m-xylene. The methyl teams attached come the phenyl ring in toluene and also m-xylene protect against the rings from packing with each other as in solid benzene. (CC BY-NC-SA; anonymous by request).