Presentation on theme: "Psychology Ch. 1 from Myers, Psychology 8e from Myers, Psychology 8e."— Presentation transcript:




You are watching: Two basic characteristics of the scientific attitude are

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2 Psychology Ch. 1 native Myers, Psychology 8e from Myers, Psychology 8e

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3 chapter 1:Thinking Critically With psychological Science science of Psychology describing our civilization Correlation Experiment Statistical thinking

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4 100 200 300 400 500 science of Psychology

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5 100 200 300 400 500 explicate our world

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6 100 200 300 400 500 Correlation

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7 100 200 300 400 500 Experiment

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8 100 200 300 400 500 Statistical reasoning

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9 1. The hindsight prejudice refers come people’s propensity to: A) i have dissolved the worth of replication B) reject any ideas the can’t be scientifically tested. C) exaggeration their capacity to have foreseen the result of past events. D) assume that correlation proves causation. E) evaluate the level to which rather share their opinions. A) dismiss the value of replication B) reject any type of ideas the can’t be scientifically tested. C) exaggerate their capability to have actually foreseen the result of past events. D) assume the correlation proves causation. E) overestimate the extent to which others share your opinions.

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10 2. Two basic characteristics that the scientific perspective are: A) pride and enthusiasm. B) ingenuity and practicality. C) creativity and also patience. D) skepticism and humility. A) pride and enthusiasm. B) ingenuity and practicality. C) creativity and patience. D) skepticism and humility.

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11 3. A theory is a(n): A) observable relationship in between independent and also dependent variables. B) testable forecast that gives direction to research. C) collection of ethics that organizes and also explains newly uncovered facts. D) unprovable assumptions about unobservable procedures that underlie emotional functioning. A) observable relationship in between independent and dependent variables. B) testable forecast that offers direction come research. C) set of principles that organizes and explains newly discovered facts. D) unprovable assumptions about unobservable procedures that underlie psychological functioning.

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12 4. Together scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism since they think that: A) world are i can not qualify to reveal what they room really thinking. B) most common sense beliefs about human habits are wrong. C) claims about human actions need come be sustained by evidence. D) occasions never happen randomly. E) civilization are commonly liars. A) people are i can not qualify to expose what they room really thinking. B) most common sense beliefs around human habits are wrong. C) claims about human actions need to be supported by evidence. D) events never take place randomly. E) people are generally liars.

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13 5. Professor Saxton was an extremely skeptical about the findings of a freshly reported experiment top top the effects of sleep deprivation. Which process would best allow her to assess the reliability of she findings? A) naturalistic observation B) replication C) random sampling D) the instance study A) naturalistic observation B) replication C) random sampling D) the instance study

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14 6. The biggest danger the relying top top case- study evidence is the it: A) is based upon naturalistic observation. B) might be unrepresentative the what is generally true. C) is unusually basic to describe in hindsight. D) leads united state to underestimate the causal relationships between events. A) is based upon naturalistic observation. B) may be unrepresentative of what is usually true. C) is unusually easy to explain in hindsight. D) leads united state to underestimate the causal relationships between events.

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15 7. Jeff erroneously assumes the everybody approximately him enjoys hear to country music just as much as he does. Jeff ideal illustrates: A) the false agreement effect. B) the possession bias. C) one illusion that control. D) the placebo effect. A) the false consensus effect. B) the possession bias. C) one illusion that control. D) the placebo effect.

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16 8. Psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order come ensure that: A) The same number of participants will certainly be assigned to each of the speculative conditions. B) the research will not be influenced by the researcher’s an individual values. C) there will certainly be a big number of entrants in the research study study. D) the participants room representative that the populace they room interested in studying. A) The same variety of participants will certainly be assigned to each of the experimental conditions. B) the research will not be influenced by the researcher’s an individual values. C) there will certainly be a big number of participants in the research study. D) the participants room representative the the populace they space interested in studying.

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17 9. Which research an approach would be most suitable for investigating the relationship in between the religious beliefs the Americans and their perspectives toward abortion? A) the survey. B) naturalistic observation. C) the situation study. D) experimentation. A) the survey. B) naturalistic observation. C) the instance study. D) experimentation.

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18 10. Dr. Johns carefully monitors and records the behaviors of children in her classrooms in bespeak to monitor the advance of your social and intellectual skills. Dr. Johns is most plainly engaged in: A) survey research. B) experimentation. C) replication. D) naturalistic observation. A) survey research. B) experimentation. C) replication. D) naturalistic observation.

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19 11. Correlational research is most beneficial for functions of: A) explanation. B) prediction. C) control. D) replication. A) explanation. B) prediction. C) control. D) replication.

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20 12. A researcher would certainly be most most likely to uncover a confident correlation between: A) financial poverty and physical health. B) self-esteem and also depression. C) knowledge and academic success. D) institution grades and also school absences. A) jae won poverty and physical health. B) self-esteem and also depression. C) intelligence and academic success. D) college grades and also school absences.

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21 13. Illusory correlation advert to: A) the perception of a relationship between two variables the does not actually exist. B) a correlation the exceeds +1.0. C) a cluster of clues on a scatterplot that subtests a correlation in between two variables. D) a correlation that is no statistically significant. A) the tardy of a relationship between two variables that does not actually exist. B) a correlation the exceeds +1.0. C) a cluster of point out on a scatterplot that subtests a correlation between two variables. D) a correlation that is no statistically significant.

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22 14. 14. If those that watch an ext violent TV tend to behave an ext aggressively, this would not necessarily indicate that the town hall TV violence influences aggressive behavior because: A) random sequences regularly don’t look random. B) correlation does no prove causation. C) sampling extreme instances leads come false generalizations. D) events often seem much more probable in hindsight. A) random sequences regularly don’t look random. B) correlation does no prove causation. C) sampling extreme situations leads come false generalizations. D) occasions often seem an ext probable in hindsight.

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23 15. 15. If the correlation between the physical weight and also reading capability of elementary college students is +.85, this would certainly indicate: A) the relationship between weight and also reading capability among elementary institution students is no statistically significant. B) low body weight has a an adverse effect ~ above the reading abilities of elementary school children. C) much better reading capability is associated with greater physical weight amongst elementary school students. D) human body weight has no causal affect on the reading abilities the elementary institution children. A) the relationship between weight and reading capacity among elementary school students is no statistically significant. B) short body weight has actually a negative effect on the reading abilities of elementary school children. C) far better reading capacity is connected with higher physical weight amongst elementary institution students. D) body weight has actually no causal affect on the reading abilities that elementary school children.

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24 16. The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have actually medicinal benefits illustrates: A) arbitrarily assignment. B) the possession bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) the placebo effect. E) illusory correlation. A) arbitrarily assignment. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false agreement effect. D) the placebo effect. E) illusory correlation.

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25 17. Participants in one experiment are said to it is in “blind” if they space uninformed about: A) what speculative hypothesis is gift tested. B) whether the experimental findings will be statistically significant. C) exactly how the dependent change is measured. D) which experimental treatment, if any, they space receiving. A) what speculative hypothesis is being tested. B) even if it is the speculative findings will be statistically significant. C) exactly how the dependent change is measured. D) which experimental treatment, if any, they space receiving.

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26 18. Being randomly assigned come the experimental condition in a study project involves being assigned: A) to that condition by chance. B) come the problem in i m sorry participants space representative of civilization in general. C) in a fashion that ensures the the independent change will have actually a strong effect ~ above the dependent variable. D) to the problem in which participants are all very similar in personality characteristics. A) come that condition by chance. B) to the condition in which participants space representative of world in general. C) in a fashion the ensures that the independent variable will have actually a solid effect on the dependency variable. D) to the problem in i m sorry participants are all very similar in personality characteristics.

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27 19. In a psychological experiment, the possibly causal variable that is manipulated by the investigator is referred to as the ___ variable. A) dependency B) elevation C) regulate D) speculative A) dependency B) live independence C) regulate D) experimental

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28 20. Cause is to result as ___ is come ___. A) independent variable; dependent variable B) correlation; experimentation C) control condition; experimental problem D) prediction; explanation E) observation; replication A) independent variable; dependent change B) correlation; testing C) regulate condition; experimental condition D) prediction; explanation E) observation; replication

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29 21. Which measure of central tendency is provided to calculate your grade-point average? A) standard deviation B) typical C) average D) mode A) traditional deviation B) typical C) median D) setting

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30 22. Which of the complying with is a measure of the degree of variation amongst a set of events? A) median B) scatterplot C) standard deviation D) normal circulation E) correlation coefficient A) mean B) scatterplot C) conventional deviation D) normal circulation E) correlation coefficient

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31 23. Average is to variety as ___ is come ___. A) frequency distribution; bar graph B) mean; mode C) scatterplot; correlation D) main tendency; sports A) frequency distribution; bar graph B) mean; mode C) scatterplot; correlation D) main tendency; sport

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32 24: pet protection institutions are much more likely to support the use of pets in research including ____ 보다 in research including ___. A) experimentation; replication B) naturalistic observation; testing C) situation studies; naturalistic monitoring D) arbitrarily assignment; case studies A) experimentation; replication B) naturalistic observation; experimentation C) case studies; naturalistic observation D) arbitrarily assignment; situation studies

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33 25. In bespeak to decide whether it was observed differences between samples reflect really differences between populations, the is vital to recognize the ___ of the observed differences. A) average B) typical C) conventional deviation D) statistical meaning A) average B) typical C) typical deviation D) statistical significance

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35 avoid here, or continue as a testimonial

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36 1. The hindsight predisposition refers to people’s tendency to: A) i have dissolved the worth of replication B) reject any kind of ideas the can’t it is in scientifically tested. C) exaggeration their capability to have actually foreseen the result of previous events. D) assume the correlation proves causation. E) evaluate the level to which rather share their opinions. A) i disbanded the value of replication B) reject any type of ideas that can’t it is in scientifically tested. C) exaggeration their capability to have foreseen the result of previous events. D) assume the correlation proves causation. E) overestimate the level to which others share your opinions. 20

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37 2. Two fundamental characteristics the the scientific attitude are: A) pride and enthusiasm. B) ingenuity and practicality. C) creativity and also patience. D) skepticism and humility. A) pride and enthusiasm. B) ingenuity and practicality. C) creativity and patience. D) skepticism and humility. 23

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38 3. A theory is a(n): A) observable relationship in between independent and dependent variables. B) testable forecast that provides direction come research. C) set of principles that organizes and explains newly found facts. D) unprovable assumptions about unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning. A) observable relationship between independent and also dependent variables. B) testable forecast that gives direction come research. C) collection of principles that organizes and also explains newly uncovered facts. D) unprovable assumptions about unobservable procedures that underlie psychological functioning. 25

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39 4. As scientists, psychologists embrace an attitude of skepticism since they think that: A) civilization are i can not qualify to expose what they space really thinking. B) most typical sense beliefs around human behavior are wrong. C) claims about human habits need come be supported by evidence. D) occasions never happen randomly. E) people are usually liars. A) people are unlikely to expose what they are really thinking. B) most common sense beliefs about human behavior are wrong. C) claims about human actions need to be supported by evidence. D) occasions never happen randomly. E) people are commonly liars. 23

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40 5. Professor Saxton was really skeptical about the result of a freshly reported experiment top top the results of sleep deprivation. Which procedure would best permit her to assess the dependability of she findings? A) naturalistic observation B) replication C) arbitrarily sampling D) the case study A) naturalistic monitoring B) replication C) arbitrarily sampling D) the instance study 25

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41 6. The biggest danger of relying top top case-study evidence is the it: A) is based on naturalistic observation. B) might be unrepresentative of what is usually true. C) is unusually basic to describe in hindsight. D) leads united state to underestimate the causal relationships in between events. A) is based upon naturalistic observation. B) might be unrepresentative of what is generally true. C) is unusually straightforward to describe in hindsight. D) leads united state to underestimate the causal relationships in between events. 26

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42 7. Jeff wrongly assumes the everybody approximately him enjoys hearne to nation music just as lot as the does. Jeff best illustrates: A) the false consensus effect. B) the hindsight bias. C) an illusion that control. D) the placebo effect. A) the false consensus effect. B) the possession bias. C) an illusion the control. D) the placebo effect. 28

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43 8. Psychologists choose a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that: A) The same number of participants will be assigned to every of the speculative conditions. B) the research will not be affected by the researcher’s personal values. C) there will be a large number of participants in the study study. D) the participants space representative of the populace they space interested in studying. A) The same number of participants will be assigned to each of the speculative conditions. B) the study will no be affected by the researcher’s personal values. C) there will be a huge number of entrants in the research study. D) the participants space representative of the population they room interested in studying. 28

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44 9. I beg your pardon research technique would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs that Americans and their perspectives toward abortion? A) the survey. B) naturalistic observation. C) the situation study. D) experimentation. A) the survey. B) naturalistic observation. C) the situation study. D) experimentation. 27

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45 10. Dr. Johns very closely monitors and records the behaviors of youngsters in she classrooms in bespeak to monitor the advance of your social and intellectual skills. Dr. Johns is most plainly engaged in: A) inspection research. B) experimentation. C) replication. D) naturalistic observation. A) survey research. B) experimentation. C) replication. D) naturalistic observation. 29

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46 11. Correlational research is most valuable for objectives of: A) explanation. B) prediction. C) control. D) replication. A) explanation. B) prediction. C) control. D) replication. 30

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47 12. A researcher would be most most likely to discover a optimistic correlation between: A) financial poverty and physical health. B) self-esteem and depression. C) intelligence and scholastic success. D) institution grades and also school absences. A) gaue won poverty and also physical health. B) self-esteem and also depression. C) knowledge and academic success. D) institution grades and school absences. 30

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48 13. Illusory correlation ad to: A) the late of a relationship in between two variables that does no actually exist. B) a correlation the exceeds +1.0. C) a swarm of point out on a scatterplot the subtests a correlation in between two variables. D) a correlation that is not statistically significant. A) the late of a relationship between two variables that does not actually exist. B) a correlation the exceeds +1.0. C) a cluster of points on a scatterplot that subtests a correlation between two variables. D) a correlation the is not statistically significant. 33

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49 14. 14. If those who watch an ext violent TV have tendency to behave more aggressively, this would certainly not necessarily indicate that the town hall TV violence influences aggressive habits because: A) random sequences often don’t look random. B) correlation does not prove causation. C) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. D) occasions often seem more probable in hindsight. A) random sequences often don’t look random. B) correlation does no prove causation. C) sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations. D) events often seem much more probable in hindsight. 34

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50 15. 15. If the correlation in between the physical weight and reading capacity of elementary college students is +.85, this would certainly indicate: A) the relationship between weight and reading capacity among elementary college students is not statistically significant. B) low body weight has actually a negative effect ~ above the reading abilities the elementary college children. C) better reading capacity is associated with better physical weight among elementary institution students. D) body weight has actually no causal influence on the analysis abilities of elementary college children. A) the relationship between weight and reading capacity among elementary college students is not statistically significant. B) short body weight has actually a an unfavorable effect top top the reading abilities that elementary school children. C) better reading ability is linked with greater physical weight among elementary college students. D) human body weight has actually no causal affect on the analysis abilities the elementary college children. 33

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51 16. The relief the pain complying with the sloop down of one inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates: A) random assignment. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) the placebo effect. E) illusory correlation. A) random assignment. B) the hindsight bias. C) the false consensus effect. D) the placebo effect. E) illusory correlation. 37

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52 17. Entrants in an experiment are stated to it is in “blind” if they are uninformed about: A) what speculative hypothesis is gift tested. B) whether the experimental findings will certainly be statistically significant. C) just how the dependent variable is measured. D) which speculative treatment, if any, they room receiving. A) what experimental hypothesis is being tested. B) whether the speculative findings will be statistically significant. C) exactly how the dependent variable is measured. D) which speculative treatment, if any, they are receiving. 37

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53 18. Being randomly assigned to the experimental condition in a study project involves being assigned: A) come that problem by chance. B) come the condition in i beg your pardon participants space representative of world in general. C) in a fashion the ensures that the independent variable will have actually a solid effect on the dependence variable. D) to the problem in which participants room all very similar in personality characteristics. A) to that condition by chance. B) to the condition in which participants are representative of civilization in general. C) in a fashion that ensures the the independent variable will have actually a solid effect ~ above the dependence variable. D) to the problem in i beg your pardon participants space all very comparable in personality characteristics. 37

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54 19. In a psychological experiment, the perhaps causal aspect that is manipulated through the investigator is referred to as the ___ variable. A) dependency B) live independence C) control D) speculative A) dependent B) elevation C) control D) speculative 38

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55 20. Cause is to result as ___ is come ___. A) elevation variable; dependent change B) correlation; experimentation C) regulate condition; experimental problem D) prediction; explanation E) observation; replication A) elevation variable; dependent change B) correlation; trial and error C) control condition; experimental condition D) prediction; explanation E) observation; replication 37

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56 21. Which measure up of main tendency is used to calculate her grade-point average? A) standard deviation B) typical C) mean D) setting A) standard deviation B) typical C) typical D) setting 41

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57 22. I m sorry of the adhering to is a measure up of the level of variation among a collection of events? A) mean B) scatterplot C) traditional deviation D) normal distribution E) correlation coefficient A) mean B) scatterplot C) typical deviation D) normal distribution E) correlation coefficient 42

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58 23. Median is to range as ___ is to ___. A) frequency distribution; bar graph B) mean; setting C) scatterplot; correlation D) central tendency; sports A) frequency distribution; bar graph B) mean; mode C) scatterplot; correlation D) main tendency; sports 41

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59 24. Animal protection organizations are much more likely to assistance the use of pets in research including ____ than in research including ___. A) experimentation; replication B) naturalistic observation; testing C) instance studies; naturalistic observation D) arbitrarily assignment; situation studies A) experimentation; replication B) naturalistic observation; experimentation C) situation studies; naturalistic monitoring D) arbitrarily assignment; case studies 37

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60 25. In order to decide whether observed differences in between samples reflect really differences in between populations, that is essential to recognize the ___ that the it was observed differences. A) average B) average C) standard deviation D) statistical definition A) mean B) typical C) conventional deviation D) statistical meaning 43

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61 AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements action Up developed by: –John J. Schulte, Psy.D. Based upon Psychology, Eighth execution by David Myers released by precious Publishers, 2006 step Up created by: –John J.

See more: When Is A Baby Like A Basketball Player Riddle, Jokes For Kids: Big List Of Sport Riddles

Schulte, Psy.D. Based upon Psychology, Eighth edition by David Myers published by worth Publishers, 2006

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62 AnswersAnswers 1.C 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.A 10.D 11.B 12.C 13.A 14.B 15.C 16.D 17.D 18.A 19.B 20.A 21.C 22.C 23.D 24.B 25.D

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