Definition As girlfriend go down the periodic table, n increases, potassium is bigger than lithium and also has less zeff than lithium and also holds on come its valence e- less tightly. Therefore it is much easier to eliminate valance e- native potassium, climate it is indigenous lithium.

You are watching: Potassium has a high first ionization energy but a low second ionization energy.



The ionic radius the N3-is larger than that of O2-


The much more e- girlfriend gain, the larger the ion, and the reduced the zeff. In addition e-/e- repulsions rise for both that these factors nitrogen has less the a traction on the e- 보다 O2-

N3- O2-




A calcium atom is bigger than a zinc atom


Zinc is greater than calcium becuase much more protons space pulling ~ above the exact same # of core e- which results in a smaller atom.



The 2nd ionization power of sodium is about three times higher than the second ionization power of magnesium

Definition It"s more difficult to remove an e- from sodium due to the fact that you would be taking from a main point electron, whereas you wouldn"t until the third ionization power level in Magnesium, zeff would be better for sodium, and it"s more tough to eliminate core e- than valence e-.
Term Why is helium a member of team 18 & not 2?
Definition Because the is one inert gas and has a full valence shell.
Term State 5 differences in between metals and also nonmetals


luster, good conducters of heat and also electricity, solid
room temp., maleable, ductle

Non Metals:

not luster, not an excellent conducters the heat and also electricity, gas a room temp, not maleable, no ductle

Term relationship between group numbers & valence e- for main group elements

the valence e-= the 1"s place

Ex: 13....valence e-=3


How do contemporary day periodic tables different from Mendeleev"s?

(2 ways, need to be in a chart)



increasing atom mass, comparable properties,by row


increasing atomic #, aspects w/similar properties, through groups(columns)

Term Why is fluorine the most electrongative element?
Definition As friend go throughout the P.T. Seff increases, but when girlfriend go down zeff decreases. Part of the halogens just holds one more e- to it is in stable. (has the greatest zeff, and is the the smallest of the halogens) most likely to tempt e- in a chemical bond.
Term Why perform halogens have actually the most an unfavorable electron?
Definition Because they have actually the greatest zeff in each period, and are 1 electron far from being stable, which provides them the easiest aspects to include an electron to.

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Term Which team has the lowest first ionization energies? WHY?
Definition Group 1, since they have actually the lowest zeff and also are the most to readily give up 1 e- to type stable ions.