To begin with we need to an­swer the sec­ond ques­tion. The reality is that sug­ars (car­bo­hy­drates) room an enor­mous course of the many var­ied com­pounds, i beg your pardon in their turn are di­vid­ed into sev­er­al class­es.

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Monosac­cha­rides space com­pounds which con­sist the one mol­e­cule. They space monomers. Castle in­clude glu­cose, fruc­tose, galac­tose, mal­tose, and also all kinds of less com­mon com­pounds that con­sist that a higher or small­er num­ber that car­bon atom (for ex­am­ple, pen­toses, the are component of the nu­cleo­tides of DNA).


Dis­ac­cha­rides room com­pounds i m sorry con­sist of two monomer mol­e­cules. For ex­am­ple, su­crose.


Poly­mers con­sist of mil­lions that monomers. For ex­am­ple, strength and cel­lu­lose.

Cellulose polymer molecule

This clas­si­fi­ca­tion is im­por­tant be­cause each sub-group of these com­pounds is char­ac­ter­ized by cer­tain qual­i­ties which room not discovered in oth­er sub-groups that sug­ars. So we must ex­am­ine sug­ars (their chem­i­cal fea­tures) based upon this clas­si­fi­ca­tion, and also it is not fairly cor­rect to dis­cuss the chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of sug­ar, together glu­cose, because that ex­am­ple, might dis­play rather dif­fer­ent prop­er­ties native su­crose or starch.

Chem­i­cal qual­i­ties that monomer car­bo­hy­drates.

We will certainly ex­am­ine them based upon the ex­am­ple the glu­cose – the sug­ars existing in the me­tab­o­lism that hu­man be­ings, an­i­mals and also plants are of the great­est im­por­tance. Ad­di­tion­al­ly, this com­pound is wide­ly supplied in medication and in­dus­try.

Al­co­hol fer­men­ta­tion is the re­ac­tion the prob­a­bly has the widest prac­ti­cal use. Yeast mi­cro-or­gan­isms cause glu­cose mol­e­cules come trans­form right into ethyl al­co­hol. Ad­di­tion­al­ly, if lac­tic or bu­tyric bac­te­ria re­act through glu­cose, lac­tic or bu­tyric acids will be formed.There is a qual­i­ta­tive re­ac­tion recognized as the sil­ver mir­ror. Together the alde­hyde group is present in glu­cose, when it re­acts with an am­mo­nia so­lu­tion the sil­ver ox­ide, a sil­ver residue will type (this will certainly in fact be pure sil­ver).The re­ac­tion the glu­cose v cop­per hy­drox­ide is char­ac­ter­is­tic – the so­lu­tion will change col­or native blue to red (the rea­son is the cuprous cop­per ox­ide forms). That is im­por­tant to note that this re­ac­tion is just pos­si­ble as soon as the sub­stances are heat­ed – at room tem­per­a­ture the al­co­hol groups will cause the so­lu­tion to rotate dark blue (sim­i­lar to the qual­i­ta­tive re­ac­tion v glyc­erin, a polyal­co­hol).An­oth­er re­ac­tion with prac­ti­cal sig­nif­i­cance is the hy­dro­gena­tion the glu­cose come sor­bitol, a hex­ahy­dric al­co­hol (again, this is pos­si­ble be­cause the the pres­ence of the alde­hyde group in the glu­cose mol­e­cule).And of course, us can­not for­get the re­ac­tion that poly­mer­iza­tion, once a substantial num­ber that mol­e­cules of glu­cose (or an­oth­er monomer car­bon) join to­geth­er and starch is created (or cel­lu­olose).

Chem­i­cal qual­i­ties of dis­ac­cha­rides

As it is wide­ly be­lieved through the gen­er­al pub­lic that sug­ar is a white, crys­talline sub­stance the is sweet come the taste, we will ex­am­ine the prop­er­ties the su­crose. Es­sen­tial­ly, no re­ac­tions that dif­fer from glu­cose have the right to be not­ed (as the alde­hyde group is “joined”). The just dif­fer­ence is the un­der the in­flu­ence that wa­ter, this sub­stance will malfunction into glu­cose and fruc­tose mol­e­cules.

Qual­i­ties that poly­mer­ic car­bo­hy­drates

The re­ac­tion of de­poly­mer­iza­tion is the break­down of starch right into glu­cose, and also ad­di­tion­al­ly over there is a qual­i­ta­tive re­ac­tion the starch and io­dine - it turns blue.

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Car­bo­hy­drates (sug­ars) room a an extremely wide team of sub­stances, the qual­i­ties that which room de­ter­mined by the num­ber that “build­ing blocks” in the com­pound. Below you"ll uncover in­ter­est­ing ex­per­i­ments with sug­ar.