The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a fruit indigenous the nightshade family members native to southern America.

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Despite botanically being a fruit, it’s typically eaten and prepared favor a vegetable.

Tomatoes space the major dietary resource of the antioxidant lycopene, which has actually been attached to many health benefits, including decreased risk that heart an illness and cancer.

They are likewise a an excellent source that vitamin C, potassium, folate, and also vitamin K.

Usually red once mature, tomatoes can additionally come in a variety of colors, including yellow, orange, green, and also purple. What’s more, plenty of subspecies of tomatoes exist with various shapes and also flavor.

This short article tells you everything you must know about tomatoes.


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Nutrition facts
The water contents of tomatoes is roughly 95%. The other 5% is composed mainly the carbohydrates and also fiber.

Here are the nutrients in a small (100-gram) raw tomato (1):

Calories: 18Water: 95%Protein: 0.9 gramsCarbs: 3.9 gramsSugar: 2.6 gramsFiber: 1.2 gramsFat: 0.2 grams

Carbs

Carbs make up 4% of raw tomatoes, which amounts to fewer than 5 grams of carbs for a tool specimen (123 grams).

Simple sugars, such together glucose and also fructose, make up nearly 70% the the carbohydrate content.

Fiber

Tomatoes room a great source that fiber, providing about 1.5 grams per average-sized tomato.

Most that the fibers (87%) in tomatoes are insoluble, in the form of hemicellulose, cellulose, and also lignin (2).

SUMMARY

Fresh tomatoes are low in carbs. The carb content is composed mainly of straightforward sugars and also insoluble fibers. These fruits space mostly made up of water.


Vitamins and also minerals

Tomatoes are a an excellent source of numerous vitamins and also minerals:

Vitamin C. This vitamin is vital nutrient and antioxidant. One medium-sized tomato can provide about 28% that the Reference daily Intake (RDI).SUMMARY

Tomatoes room a an excellent source of number of vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin C, potassium, vitamin K, and also folate.


other plant compounds

The contents of vitamins and also plant compound in tomatoes deserve to vary greatly between varieties and sampling periods (8, 9, 10).

The main plant link in tomatoes are:

Beta carotene. one antioxidant that frequently gives foodstuffs a yellow or orange hue, beta carotene is converted right into vitamin A in your body.

Chlorophylls and carotenoids favor lycopene space responsible for the rich color of tomatoes.

When the ripening process starts, the chlorophyll (green) is degraded and carotenoids (red) space synthesized (15, 16).

Lycopene

Lycopene — the many abundant carotinoid in ripened tomato — is particularly noteworthy once it concerns the fruit’s plant compounds.

It’s uncovered in the highest possible concentrations in the skin (17, 18).

Generally, the redder the tomato, the more lycopene it has (19).

Tomato commodities — such as ketchup, tomato juice, tomato paste, and also tomato sauces — room the wealthiest dietary sources of lycopene in the western diet, offering over 80% of diet lycopene in the United states (20, 21).

Gram because that gram, the quantity of lycopene in processed tomato products is frequently much higher than in fresh tomatoes (22, 23).

For example, ketchup boasts 10–14 mg that lycopene every 3.5 ounces (100 grams), when one small, new tomato (100 grams) holds only 1–8 mg (24).

However, save in mind the ketchup is often consumed in very small amounts. Thus, it may be much easier to bang up her lycopene entry by eating unprocessed tomatoes — which additionally have far less sugar than ketchup.

Other foods in her diet may have actually a solid effect ~ above lycopene absorption. Spend this tree compound through a resource of fat can increase absorption by up to four times (25).

However, not everyone absorbs lycopene in ~ the same price (26).

Even though processed tomato products are greater in lycopene, it’s still recommended to consume fresh, entirety tomatoes at any time possible.

SUMMARY

Lycopene is one of the many abundant plant compounds in tomatoes. It’s found in the highest concentrations in tomato products, such as ketchup, juice, paste, and sauce.


Consumption the tomatoes and also tomato-based commodities has been attached to boosted skin health and a reduced risk that heart disease and cancer.

Heart health

Heart condition — including heart attacks and also strokes — is the world’s many common reason of death.

A research in middle-aged men linked low blood levels of lycopene and beta-carotene to enhanced risk of love attacks and also strokes (27, 28).

Increasing evidence from clinical trials says that supplementing v lycopene may aid lower LDL (bad) cholesterol (29).

Clinical researches of tomato products indicate benefits versus inflammation and markers the oxidative anxiety (30, 31).

They also show a protective result on the inner layer of blood vessels and may diminish your hazard of blood coagulation (32, 33).

Cancer prevention

Cancer is the uncontrolled development of abnormal cells that spread beyond their typical boundaries, often invading other parts that the body.

Observational studies have noted links between tomatoes — and tomato commodities — and also fewer incidences the prostate, lung, and stomach cancers (34, 35).

While the high lycopene content is believed responsible, high-quality human research necessary to check the reason of these benefits (36, 37, 38).

A research in women reflects that high concentration of carotenoids — discovered in high amounts in tomatoes — may protect versus breast cancer (39, 40).

Skin health

Tomatoes are considered valuable for skin health.

Tomato-based foods items rich in lycopene and also other tree compounds may protect versus sunburn (41, 42).

According come one study, human being who ingested 1.3 ounces (40 grams) of tomato paste — giving 16 mg of lycopene — with olive oil every day because that 10 weeks skilled 40% under sunburns (43).

SUMMARY

Studies display that tomatoes and also tomato products may reduce your hazard of heart disease and several cancers. This fruit is also beneficial because that skin health, as it may protect against sunburns.


When tomatoes start to ripen, they create a gaseous hormone called ethylene (44, 45).

Commercially get an impressive tomatoes space harvested and transported while still green and immature. To do them red before selling, food service providers spray them with man-made ethylene gas.

This procedure inhibits the advancement of natural flavor and also may result in tasteless tomato (46).

Therefore, in your ar grown tomatoes may taste better because they’re allowed to ripen naturally.

If you buy unripened tomatoes, you can speed up the ripening procedure by wrapping them in a paper of newspaper and keeping lock on the kitchen counter for a few days. Simply make sure to examine them everyday for ripeness.

SUMMARY

Tomatoes are regularly harvested while tho green and immature, climate ripened artificially through ethylene gas. This may cause less flavor development, causing bland tomatoes.


Tomatoes are usually well tolerated and also tomato allergy is very rare (47, 48).

Allergy

Although tomato allergy is rare, individuals allergic come grass pollen are much more likely to be allergy to tomatoes.

This problem is called pollen-food allergy syndrome or oral-allergy syndrome (49).

In oral-allergy syndrome, your immune system assaults fruit and vegetable proteins the are similar to pollen, which leader to allergy reactions choose itching in the mouth, scratchy throat, or ede of the mouth or neck (50).

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People v latex allergy can also experience cross-reactivity to tomatoes (51, 52).

SUMMARY

Tomatoes are generally well tolerated but may reason allergic reactions in people allergic to grass pollen.