l>Salix pulchra
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Index of species Information

SPECIES: Salix pulchra
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Tealeaf willow at Happy Valley, north Slope, Alaska. Picture © M.K. Raynolds.

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Introductory

SPECIES: Salix pulchraAUTHORSHIP and CITATION : Uchytil, Ronald J. 1991. Salix pulchra. In: Fire impacts Information System, . U.S. Room of Agriculture, forest Service, Rocky mountain Research Station, Fire scientific researches Laboratory (Producer). Available: https://www.chathamtownfc.net/database/feis/plants/shrub/salpul/all.html <>.ABBREVIATION : SALPULSYNONYMS : Salix planifolia Pursh subsp. Pulchra <1,5>SCS PLANT password : SAPLPCOMMON surname : tealeaf willowdiamond willowdiamondleaf willowflatleaf willowflat-leaved willowpaneleaf willowthin red willowTAXONOMY : The at this time accepted clinical name of tealeaf pasture is Salixpulchra Cham. <40>. LIFE form : Shrubchathamtownfc.netERAL LEGAL status : No distinct statusOTHER status : NO-ENTRY

DISTRIBUTION and OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Salix pulchraGENERAL circulation : Tealeaf pasture grows throughout many of Alaska and the YukonTerritory. It additionally occurs in the northwestern Northwest Territories,and in northwestern brother Columbia. That is not found south that latitude56 levels N in brothers Columbia <5>.ECOSYSTEMS : FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES44 AlpineSTATES : AK BC NT YTBLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC regions : NO-ENTRYKUCHLER plant ASSOCIATIONS : NO-ENTRYSAF COVER varieties : 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 203 Balsam poplar 204 black spruce 254 black color spruce - document birchSRM (RANGELAND) COVER species : NO-ENTRYHABITAT species AND PLANT communities : Tealeaf willow is a leading or codominant in countless sedge-shrubtundra neighborhoods mostly phibìc of the Brooks variety in Alaska.Associated carices encompass aquatic sedge (Carex aquatilis), Bigelowsedge (C. Bigelowii), and shortstalk sedge (C. Microchaeta). Associatedwillows incorporate Richardson willow (Salix lanata) and also netleaf willow (S.reticulata). That may also codominate shrubby tundra areas withdwarf birches (Betula spp.), plenty of huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.),northern Labrador-tea (Ledum palustre), Richardson willow, Alaska bogwillow (S. Fuscescens), least willow (S. Rotundifolia), and also otherwillows (Salix spp.) <15,34>. In interior Alaska, the is frequently acomponent the seral willow areas on floodplain terraces, formingthickets through grayleaf willow (S. Glauca), Richardson willow, and alders(Alnus spp.) <34>.Published share listing tealeaf willow as a leading incommunity species (cts) room presented below:Area category Authorityne AK basic veg. Cts Hanson 1953AK general veg. Cts Viereck & Dyrness 1980

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

SPECIES: Salix pulchraIMPORTANCE come LIVESTOCK and WILDLIFE : Tealeaf pasture is an important moose browser in Alaska <23,26>. Itis also browsed by snowshoe hare and Dall lamb <35>.Willows in general are a wanted food and also building product of beaver<27>. Willow shoots, catkins, leaves, and buds are eaten by numeroussmall mammals and also birds <14>. In Alaska, willows are vital foodof ptarmigan <35>.PALATABILITY : Tealeaf willow is a preferred moose browse; however, that is lesspalatable 보다 Alaska pasture (Salix alaxensis), sandbar pasture (S.interior), and also littletree willow (S. Arbusculoides) <23>.NUTRITIONAL worth : Tealeaf pasture browse has actually moderate to relatively high moisture,protein, and caloric content. It provides a nutritious food supply forwintering moose <26>.COVER worth : Tealeaf pasture thickets administer cover because that wildlife. VALUE because that REHABILITATION of DISTURBED sites : In Alaska, numerous willow species are provided for wildlife habitatrestoration, streambank protection, and reclamation of web page disturbedby mining and also construction. Three general methods the planting willowson disturbed sites in north latitudes are <21,24,38>: (1) plantingstem cuttings, (2) transplanting containerized rooted cuttings orseedlings, and (3) planting majority of dormant branches.OTHER USES and also VALUES : All willows produce salacin, i beg your pardon is closely related chemically toaspirin. Aboriginal Americans used various preparations native willows totreat tooth ache, stomach ache, diarrhea, dysentery, and also dandruff <22>.Native Americans likewise used flexible willow stems because that making baskets,bows, arrows, scoops, and also fish trap <18>. Aboriginal Alaskan peoplesate young tealeaf willow leaves both raw and also cooked <35>. OTHER management CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

BOTANICAL and ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Salix pulchraGENERAL BOTANICAL features : Tealeaf willow is an upright, multiple-stemmed, deciduous shrubgenerally between 3 and 6 feet (0.9 and 1.8 m) tall yet occasionally upto 15 feet (4.6 m) <35>. In exposed arctic and alpine sites it mayassume a low, prostrate type <35>. It has smooth, gray bark. Masculine andfemale flowers happen on different plants in 0.5- come 3-inch-long erectcatkins <1>. The fruit is a two-valved silky,pubescent capsule 0.3 inch(8 mm) long <35>.RAUNKIAER LIFE form : Phanerophyte REGENERATION processes : Tealeaf willow"s major mode the reproduction is sexual. Itproduces an abundance of small, light-weight seeds. Like most willows,it probably begins seed production at very early age (between 2 and 10years) <14>. In ~ maturity, the fruit splits open, releasing the seed.Each seed has a cottony under that aids in dispersal by wind and also water<6>. Seed are distributed during the cultivation season and remain viablefor only around 1 week <6>. The seed contain far-ranging amounts ofchlorophyll so the photosynthesis normally occurs as soon as the seedis moistened. Germination occurs within 24 hours of dispersal top top moistseedbeds <6>. In germination tests, 95 to 100 percent the seedsgerminated within 1 come 3 days at temperatures in between 41 and also 77 degreesF (5-25 C) <7>. Exposed mineral soils provide the ideal seedbed.Germination is inhibited by litter <14>.
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Female catkin in seed. Photo courtesy of main Yukon species Inventory Project.
Vegetative reproduction: Tealeaf willow sprouts indigenous the root crownif aboveground trunk are broken or ruined by cutting, flooding, orfire. Detached stem fragments kind adventitious root if castle remainmoist. Therefore portions of stems will certainly root naturally if hidden in moistsoil <14>.SITE qualities : Tealeaf pasture grows in arctic and also alpine tundra, open black andwhite spruce (Picea mariana, P. Glauca) woodlands, muskegs, and also sedgefens <1>. In open up spruce woodlands, tealeaf willow trees usuallyoccur as scattered individuals yet become more dense follow me riparianareas <26,35>. In open up black spruce woodlands, tealeaf pasture oftenattains highest possible cover in areas with shallow, perched water tables ~ above thesurface that permafrost <9>. In the mountains of interior Alaska, itoften forms considerable thickets above timberline <17>. It also formsextensive thickets in treeless bogs, and at treeline in northern Alaska<35>. In arctic tundra it grows on flow banks, islands, riverterraces, and also on rojo uplands <4>.SUCCESSIONAL status : Tealeaf willow is a ingredient of stable, shrub-dominated tundracommunities <3,4>. The is intolerant the shade, and also uncommon in climaxboreal forests, uneven they remain relatively open. Foote <12> reportedtealeaf willow arising in at an early stage successional stages followingwildfire in black spruce forests. The veached its greatest abundanceabout 30 year after fire, however thereafter declined as it!was overtoppedby urees; by 56 years(after fire, it`was absent. Alojg the Chena Riverin inner Alaska, tealeaf`willow to be not uncovered in suc#essionalterrace cOmmunities however grew only as scAttered people in climaxblack spruce-sphagnum moss stands <29>. These climax stands providedfavorable sites for ve`leaf willow because they to be relative?y openand wet dwe to comprehensive Permafrost.SAASONAL advance : Tealeaf pasture catkins appear in the beforehand spring prior to the leavesare totally expanded <35>. In Amaska, floWering generally occurs in Mayand June$ and also seeds typically mature in late May, June, !nd Kuly <7,31>.Seeds are dispersed soon0after ripening; dispersal occurs later on withincreasing lapitude and also elevation. Because that example, seeds room dispersedfrom late might to at an early stage June in the Fairbanks area but are no disperseduntil early August along the Meade flow <7>.

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Salix pulchraFIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Tealeaf willow is a fire-adapted species. Most plants sprout fromthe root crown adhering to top-kill by fire <10,37>. Viereck andSchandelmeier <36> report that also old, decadent willows sproutprolifically automatically after fire. The sprouting ability of willowsis apparently an ext vigorous and also prolific 보다 that the birches or alders<36>. Tealeaf willow"s abundant, wind-dispersed seed colonizeburned areas <30>.FIRE power : uncover fire regime info for the plant communities in i m sorry this species may occur by beginning the species name in the FEIS home page under"Find Fire Regimes".POSTFIRE regeneration STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site making it through root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed lugged by wind; postfire years 1 and 2 off-site colonizer; seed brought by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Salix pulchraIMMEDIATE FIRE result ON plant : Severe fires in white and black spruce woodlands where tealeaf willowgrows together scattered individuals deserve to kill willows by completely removingsoil essential layers and also charring the roots <39>. Much less severe fires onlytop-kill plants.DISCUSSION and also QUALIFICATION the FIRE effect : NO-ENTRYPLANT response TO FIRE : Tealeaf pasture sprouts from the source crown adhering to most fires.Sprouts develop much more rapidly 보다 seedlings do and also probably with over20 customs (50 cm) in elevation by the end of the very first growing season <37>.

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DISCUSSION and QUALIFICATION that PLANT an answer : Tealeaf pasture is typical on recent burns in lowland black color spruceforests in inner Alaska. One 11-year-old burn had about 4,700tealeaf, Alaska, and grayleaf pasture stems every acre (11,600/ha), andlesser amounts of spruce and poplar <37>. Sampling countless burns inlowland black spruce species in internal Alaska, Foote <12> observed thattealeaf willow averaged 295 stems per acre (728/ha) top top 1- to5-year-old burns, and also 771 stems per acre (1,905/ha) on 5- come 30-year-oldburns. Its density probably boosts or remains consistent for up to 30years after a forest fire, but thereafter declines as young treesovertop that <12>.Since tealeaf willow seed are distributed in the summer and remainviable for only around one week, the season of a fire determines if itwill create during the an initial or succeeding postfire years <30,36>.Fire severity influence the mode of tealeaf pasture postfire recovery.Following irradiate fires that recovers quickly, sending up brand-new shoots fromundamaged source crowns. Few if any seedlings establish following thistype the burn due to the fact that organic soil layers, which prevent seedlingestablishment, are only partially consumed <32>. Following severefires, however, the main mode of recovery is seedling establishment.Severe fires the burn deep right into organic soils death willows but exposemineral soils, which provide excellent seedbeds. Ripe years after awildfire in a black spruce forest in interior Alaska, tealeafwillow cover got to 24 percent on scarified firelines within the burn,due to quick seedling establishment. In the main burn the 6-to8-inch-thick (15-20 cm) organic class was only partially burned. Here,tealeaf pasture reestablished through sprouting, and also cover after 9 yearswas just 3 percent <32>. Sheathe in surrounding unburned areas was 2 percent.FIRE management CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire have the right to be provided to rejuvenate decadent willows.

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Salix pulchraREFERENCES : 1. Argus, George W. 1973. The genus Salix in Alaska and also the Yukon. Publication in Botany, No. 2. Ottawa, ON: national Museums of Canada, nationwide Museum of natural Sciences. 279 p. <6167> 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler"s associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Keep in mind 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Room of the Interior, bureau of soil Management. 169 p. <434> 3. Bliss, L. C. 1988. Arctic tundra and polar desert biome. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, wilhelm Dwight, eds. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; new York: Cambridge college Press: 1-32. <13877> 4. Bliss, L. C.; Cantlon, J. E. 1957. Succession on river alluvium in north Alaska. American Midland Naturalist. 58(2): 452-469. <14931> 5. Brayshaw, T. Christopher. 1976. Catkin bearing plants of brother Columbia. Occas. Pap. No. 18. Victoria, BC: The brothers Columbia Provincial Museum. 176 p. <6170> 6. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Salix L. Willow. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., technological coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the unified States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service: 746-750. <5412> 7. Densmore, Roseann; Zasada, John. 1983. Seeds dispersal and dormancy trends in northern willows: ecological and evolutionary significance. Canadian newspaper of Botany. 61: 3207-3216. <5027> 8. Dorn, Robert D. 1977. Willows the the Rocky mountain States. Rhodora. 79: 390-429. <6000> 9. Dyrness, C. T.; Grigal, D. F. 1979. Vegetation-soil relationships follow me a spruce woodland transect in inner Alaska. Canadian journal of Botany. 57: 2644-2656. <12488>10. Dyrness, C. T.; Norum, Rodney A. 1983. The impacts of experimental fires on black spruce woodland floors in internal Alaska. Canadian newspaper of woodland Research. 13: 879-893. <7299>11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Woodland cover varieties of the united States and Canada. Washington, DC: culture of American Foresters. 148 p. <905>12. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and also dynamics the plant areas after fire in the taiga of inner Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service, Pacific Northwest forest and range Experiment Station. 108 p. <7080>13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; . 1977. Vegetation and environmental attributes of forest and selection ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Room of Agriculture, forest Service. 68 p. <998>14. Haeussler, S.; Coates, D. 1986. Autecological characteristics of selected types that contend with conifers in brothers Columbia: a literature review. Land monitoring Report No. 33. Victoria, BC: set of Forests, details Services Branch. 180 p. <1055>15. Hanson, Herbert C. 1953. Vegetation species in northwestern Alaska and also comparisons with communities in other arctic regions. Ecology. 34(1): 111-140. <9781>16. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Component 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: college of Washington Press. 597 p. <1166>17. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora the Alaska and also neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford university Press. 1008 p. <13403>18. Kovalchik, young name L.; Hopkins, wilhelm E.; Brunsfeld, Steven J. 1988. Significant indicator shrubs and herbs in riparian zones on National forests of main Oregon. R6-ECOL-TP-005-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 159 p. <8995>19. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Hand-operated to accompany the map the potential vegetation of the conterminous joined States. Unique Publication No. 36. Brand-new York: American geographical Society. 77 p. <1384>20. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following big northern Rocky hill wildfires. In: Proceedings, high Timbers fire ecology conference and also Intermountain Fire research study Council fire and land monitoring symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: tall Timbers study Station: 355-373. <1496>21. McCluskey, D. Cal; Brown, Jack; Bornholdt, Dave; . 1983. Willow planting for riparian habitat improvement. Tech. Note 363. Denver, CO: U.S. Room of the Interior, office of soil Management. 21 p. <6408>22. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs that the great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: college of Nevada Press. 342 p. <1702>23. Peek, J. M. 1974. A review of moose food habits studies in phibìc America. Le Naturaliste Canadien. 101: 195-215. <7420>24. Platts, william S.; Armour, Carl; Booth, Gordon D.; . 1987. Techniques for examining riparian habitats through applications to management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. Ogden, UT: U.S. Room of Agriculture, forest Service, Intermountain research study Station. 177 p. <6171>25. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical tree geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. <2843>26. Risenhoover, Kenneth L. 1989. Composition and also quality of moose winter diets in inner Alaska. Newspaper of Wildlife Management. 53(3): 568-577. <14930>27. U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. <2387>28. U.S. Department of Agriculture, soil Conservation Service. 1982. Nationwide list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. Perform of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. <11573>29. Viereck, Leslie A. 1970. Forest sequence and soil development nearby to the Chena river in interior Alaska. Arctic and Alpine Research. 2(1): 1-26. <12466>30. Viereck, Leslie A. 1973. Wildfire in the taiga the Alaska. Quaternary Research. 3: 465-495. <7247>31. Viereck, Leslie A. 1979. Attributes of treeline plant communities in Alaska. Holarctic Ecology. 2: 228-238. <8251>32. Viereck, Leslie A. 1982. Effects of fire and also firelines on active layer thickness and soil temperature in interior Alaska. In: Proceedings, 4th Canadian permafrost conference; 1981 march 2-6; Calgary, AB. The roger J.E. Brown Memorial Volume. Ottawa, ON: nationwide Research the supervisory board of Canada: 123-135. <7303>33. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T. 1979. Environmental effects the the Wickersham Dome Fire close to Fairbanks, Alaska. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-90. Portland, OR: U.S. Room of Agriculture, woodland Service, Pacific Northwest woodland and variety Experiment Station. 71 p. <6392>34. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Batten, A. R.; Wenzlick, K. J. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286. Portland, OR: U.S. Room of Agriculture, woodland Service, Pacific Northwest research Station. 278 p. <2431>35. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and also shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, forest Service. 265 p. <6884>36. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Impacts of fire in Alaska and surrounding Canada--a literary works review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Room of the Interior, office of floor Mangement, Alaska State Office. 124 p. <7075>37. Wolff, Jerry O.; Zasada, john C. 1979. Moose habitat and forest succession on the Tanana flow floodplain and Yukon-Tanana upland. In: Proceedings, north American Moose Conference and Workshop No 15; ; Kenai, AK. . . 213-244. <6860>38. Wright, Stoney. 1989. Developments in tree material and also revegetation an innovation in Alaska. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a worldwide perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 respectable 27-31; Calgary, AB. Rep. No. RRTAC 89-2. Vol. 1. Edmonton, AB: Alberta floor Conservation and also Reclamation Council: 107-116. <14361>39. Zasada, J. 1986. Natural regeneration that trees and also tall shrubs on forest sites in interior Alaska. In: valve Cleve, K.; Chapin, F. S., III; Flanagan, P. W.; , eds. Forest ecosystems in the Alaska taiga: A synthesis of structure and function. New York: Springer-Verlag: 44-73. <2291>40. ITIS Database. 2004. Integrated taxonomic information system, . Available: http://www.itis.usda.gov/index.html. <51776>FEIS residence Page