Presentation on theme: "Compressibility Gases are easily compressed because of the space between the particles in a gas. The distance between particles in a gas is much greater."— Presentation transcript:
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1 Compressibility Gases are easily compressed because of the space between the particles in a gas. The distance between particles in a gas is much greater than the distance between particles in a liquid or solid. Under pressure, the particles in a gas are forced closer together.
2 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure The amount of gas, volume, and temperature are factors that affect gas pressure.
3 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure Four variables are generally used to describe a gas. The variables and their common units are pressure (P) in kilopascals volume (V) in liters temperature (T) in kelvins the number of moles (n).
4 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure Amount of Gas You can use kinetic theory to predict and explain how gases will respond to a change of conditions. If you inflate an air raft, for example, the pressure inside the raft will increase.
5 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure If the gas pressure increases until it exceeds the strength of an enclosed, rigid container, the container will burst.
6 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure Volume You can raise the pressure exerted by a contained gas by reducing its volume. The more a gas is compressed, the greater is the pressure that the gas exerts inside the container.
7 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure When the volume of the container is halved, the pressure the gas exerts is doubled.
8 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure Temperature An increase in the temperature of an enclosed gas causes an increase in its pressure. As a gas is heated, the average kinetic energy of the particles in the gas increases. Faster-moving particles strike the walls of their container with more energy.
9 Factors Affecting Gas Pressure When the Kelvin temperature of the enclosed gas doubles, the pressure of the enclosed gas doubles.
10 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume Boyle’s law states that for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.
11 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and Volume
12 Charles’s Law: Temperature and Volume Charles’s law states that the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant.
13 Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lussac’s law states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature if the volume remains constant.
14 The Combined Gas Law The combined gas law describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas.
15 The Combined Gas Law The combined gas law allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant.
16 Ideal Gas Law The gas law that includes all four variables—P, V, T, and n—is called the ideal gas law. The ideal gas constant (R) has the value 8.31 (L·kPa)/(K·mol).
19 for Sample Problem 14.5 Problem Solving 14.24 Solve Problem 24 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
20 Ideal Gases and Real Gases Under what conditions are real gases most likely to differ from ideal gases?
21 Ideal Gases and Real Gases a.There are attractions between the particles in an ideal gas. Because of these attractions, a gas can condense,or even solidify, when it is compressed or cooled.
22 Ideal Gases and Real Gases Real gases differ most from an ideal gas at low temperatures and high pressures.
23 Ideal Gases and Real Gases
24 Dalton’s Law Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that, at constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.
25 Dalton’s Law The contribution each gas in a mixture makes to the total pressure is called the partial pressure exerted by that gas.
26 Dalton’s Law a.Three gases are combined in container T.
27 Graham’s Law a.Bromine vapor is moving upward through the air in a graduated cylinder.
28 Graham’s Law a.After several hours, the bromine has moved almost to the top of the cylinder.
29 Graham’s Law Diffusion is the tendency of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout.
30 Graham’s Law a.During effusion, a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container. Gases of lower molar mass diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass.
31 Graham’s Law Graham’s law of effusion states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas’s molar mass. This law can also be applied to the diffusion of gases.
32 Graham’s Law Comparing Effusion Rates a.A helium filled balloon will deflate sooner than an air-filled balloon.
33 Graham’s Law a.Helium atoms are less massive than oxygen or nitrogen molecules. So the molecules in air move more slowly than helium atoms with the same kinetic energy.
34 Graham’s Law a.Because the rate of effusion is related only to a particle’s speed, Graham’s law can be written as follows for two gases, A and B.
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35 Graham’s Law a.Helium effuses (and diffuses) nearly three times faster than nitrogen at the same temperature.