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You are watching: Does temperature affect the bounce of a tennis ball

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Abstract

The objective of this experiment is to uncover if the temperature that a tennis ball affects the means it bounces. That is also to discover out if the temperature of things can impact its behavior. What mainly reasons a tennis round to bounce is every the press stored inside. There isn’t a lot of pressure in the ball, but enough so the the air molecules can easily move and so the if there is a gap inside, the molecules have the right to slide come cover it. When a tennis sphere bounces, the waiting molecules within are required to relocate to the ground, and also as the round comes ago up, the waiting molecules conveniently move earlier up to fill the space, which causes some that the load of the tennis round to go up.

In this experiment, one will placed the tennis round at four various temperatures—room, freezing, hot, and also cold. First, find a tennis round with a thermometer right beside it and leave it at room temperature for 20 minutes. Document the temperature top top the thermometer. After, usage a meter stick or a tape measure and measure one meter, or one hundreds centimeters. Autumn the ball from the height, and also measure just how high it bounced. Record it. Repeat these steps however keep the round in a refrigerator, a freezer, and also an oven. Then, analyze the information.

The an outcome should have actually been that the sphere bounced much lower when it was in the freezer than any type of other temperature, and also that the sphere should’ve bounced greatest in the oven.

Table the Contents

Abstract 2

Hypothesis. 2

Background Research. 2

Materials. 2

Experimental Procedure. 2

Variables. 2

Data evaluation & Discussion. 2

Conclusion. 2

Ideas for Future Research. 2

Acknowledgements. 2

Works Cited. 2

Appendix. 2

 

Hypothesis

The tennis round will most likely bounce more in hot temperatures and bounce small in the cold. Due to the fact that the bounce of a tennis ball partly depends on the press of the gas in it, the sphere will bounce in different way in various pressures. Warm temperatures create much more pressure vice versa, cold temperatures carry out not create much pressure.

Background Research

History that Tennis Balls

Tennis balls were very first made in the early on 1300’s. They were first used by the French monks in the game known as “Jeu de Paume.” (Borlings, 2011)These balls were regularly packed v sawdust covering in leather. (Borlings, 2011)They did not bounce an extremely well, however. “Jeu de Paume” to be played without even bouncing the balland was just played versus a wall.(Borlings, 2011)The video game is outdated and also is no played anymore. Tennis balls in the 1400s were quite similar to the an initial tennis balls, butthey were stuffed with chalk, sand, sawdust, or earth.(Wikipedia, 2012)Traditional tennis balls were likewise made from a spherical stitched envelope of leather or fabric stuffed through rags, horsehair or comparable material.(Incorporation, 2011)It was additionally composed of a mixture that seemed prefer putty and human hair.(Borlings, 2011)However, in 1470, louis XI the France forbade the filling of tennis balls and said the they have to be filled with high-quality leather.(Wikipedia, 2012)In the 16th century, tennis balls were found stuffed with pet meat and also bones, too. (Wikipedia, 2012)From the 18th century, tennis balls were created by wounding ¾” strips the wool approximately a nucleus do by rolling strips into a small ball.(Wikipedia, 2012)Also, semi- traditional tennis balls had a woodier feel and also did not bounce as high; there to be no pressure inside the ball. (Wikipedia, 2012)In the 19th century, tennis balls were made of rubber. (Borlings, 2011)Rubber might harness much more kinetic power than other products that to be used, so the balls began to bounce higher. Native the start of tennis in the 1870’s, India rubber, do from a vulcanization procedure invented by Charles Goodyear in the 1850s, was offered to produce lawn tennis balls.(Incorporation, 2011)The very first rubber tennis balls were made the end of pure rubber, and also their properties were boosted by stitching flannel on come the core. (Incorporation, 2011)In the so late 1920’s, tennis balls came to be pressurized. (Borlings, 2011)This was very important since the brand-new pressurized balls bounced higher, better, and also could it is in hit farther.(Borlings, 2011) indigenous the 1920’s, the process of do a tennis ball was based on the ‘clover-leaf’ principlewhere a sheet of rubber to be shaped right into a three-leaf clover.(Incorporation, 2011)Then, machines would revolve the paper of rubber into a spherical form. (Incorporation, 2011)After, chemicals would generate pressurizing gas which was to be included to the rubber outline. (Incorporation, 2011)The spherical rubber would then be molded to an actual round in boil cavities.(Incorporation, 2011) This an approach was offered for a long time. However, nowadays, two half-shells are made very first and is melded together to kind a core.(Incorporation, 2011)Also, the initial flannel cloth was replaced by unique ‘melton’ cloth made specifically for the purpose and also the stitching was replaced by rubber seams. (Incorporation, 2011)In1972,tennis balls ended up being yellow.(Borlings, 2011)How gas inside the tennis sphere affects the bounce of the round will it is in explained.

The physiology that a tennis ball contains a hollow main point made out of a rubber-like material. (Sheehan, 2011)Outside that the round is felt, which is the furry, yellow fabric on the surface of the tennis ball. (Harriman, 2012)The corpuscle that consist of gas within the tennis ball space not really condensed and also are cluttered; they can easily move or on slide to to fill up any kind of occupied in the core. (Sheehan, 2011)Also, as most civilization know, the molecules that comprise gas can easily expand or contract. When a tennis round hits the ground, the pressure presses against the ball, pushing the bottom surface of the sphere in come the core and compressing the gas within of it. (Sheehan, 2011)On impact, the gas will be caused to move toward the ground. As the tennis round returns to its normal form after gaining pressed, the gas within the ball conveniently occupies the room that was open up during affect which causes the gas to act together a spring, do the ball bounce right into the air. (Sheehan, 2011)However, if one lets the ball continue to bounce, it will bounce much less high every time till it ultimately just sits on the ground. This is since the power lost in the collision that the round to the floor is inelastic, which means that kinetic power in the ball is lost each time the bounces.(Sheehan, 2011)It’s just like a trampoline: once one jumps ~ above a trampoline, the material one the trampoline expands and also stretches, and when it does, the trampoline is required to come back up come its original state, resulting in one come bounce ~ above the trampoline.

The press of the gas inside of the tennis sphere is what determines just how high the ball will bounce. The higher the pressure, the more the ball will bounce, and vice versa. . The scientific equation because that determining the pressure of gas is “p=rRT,” wherein “p” is the pressure, “r” is the density, “R” is a constant specific come the gas and “T” is temperature. As one may currently know, a greater temperature results in greater pressure, while a lower temperature outcomes in reduced pressure. (Harriman, 2012)When the temperature increases, the gas molecule expand and as they expand, the energy of lock increases, causing them to bounce an ext tempestuously. (Harriman, 2012)Likewise, a chillier temperature reasons the gas molecules to contract and move around more sluggishly. Together a result, a cold ball has actually a much lower bounce.(Harriman, 2012)

Here is a diagram of the structure of a tennis ball. The environment-friendly represents the feeling on the ball, and also the black color represents the hollow core. The blue dots stand for the gas molecule inside.

 

Materials

Video Camera

Tennis Ball

Refrigerator

Freezer

A good source of warmth that deserve to heat points evenly

Ruler/Meter stick/Tape measure

Paper

Pencil

Thermometer

Experimental ProcedureFind a tennis ball, and also put it inside a freezer for about 20 minutes through a thermometer alongside it. Make sure there are no liquids in the freezerAfter the 20 minutes, take the end the ball. Document temperature ~ above the thermometer of the ball and write that down.Then, drop the round from a height of one meter. Prior to the ball is dropped, make certain a measuring tape or a meter stick is very close to where the ball is gift dropped so the height can be measured. While dropping the ball, that is suggested that one documents the occasion so it will be less complicated to discover how high the ball bounced. Repeat this this step three times and also record every one of the results.Repeat steps 1-3 however keep the ball in a refrigerator.Repeat actions 1-3 but keep the round at room temperature.Repeat procedures 1-3 but keep the sphere at a warm temperature without obtaining moisture ~ above it. This time, the ball deserve to be boil for much longer than 20 minutes. This can be excellent through placing it the end on the sunlight for a very long time, or pack the round in numerous heat pads. One may likewise use a warm dish to do this.Create a graph or a table showing just how high the balls bounce in different temperatures.Analyze the data, and also make a conclusion stating if the temperature that a tennis sphere affects just how high it bounces.Variables

Independent variables: Temperatures,

Dependant variables:How High the sphere Bounces.

Controlled variables: Refrigerator/freezer stopsworking, there is no warm source, room temperature is extremely hot, video clip camera has bad graphics and also one cannot clearly see things recorded, height from which the sphere is dropped

Data evaluation & Discussion

Here is the data built up from the very first bounce of every temperature. The an initial bounce is typically the many accurate due to the fact that as the sphere is exposed, the temperature promptly changes.

Here is one more table that mirrors the specific height in i beg your pardon the round bounced.

Temperature in Celsius

21

2.77

-18

56

Height that Bounce

64

55.9

34.5

69

Also, this is the graph produced by information accumulated from the second bounce, or the second trial per temperature.

Here is the table for this graph showing the actual elevation in i m sorry the round bounced.

Temperature in Celsius

21

2.77

-18

56

Height of Bounce

64

57.6

37

71

This is the graph developed using information collected from the critical bounces per temperature, or the third trial.

This is the table mirroring the heights in i m sorry the sphere bounced.

Temperature in Celsius

21

2.77

-18

56

Height of Bounce

64

58.2

34

68.9

As one may see, the temperature go indeed impact how high the sphere bounces.

Conclusion

The temperature of a tennis ball considerably affects exactly how high that bounces. The colder, the lower the ball bounces, and also vice versa. This is due to the fact that the molecules inside of the ball which space the main variables that reason them come bounce differ in mass and also energy at temperatures. In the heat, the molecule are more active, so the ball have the right to bounce higher, and in the cold, the molecules space heavier and have less energy, creating a smaller bounce.

 

Ideas because that Future Research

For a future topic regarded this subject, ns would choose to watch if the age of a tennis ball additionally affects just how it bounces. Cable instruments, space often much better when aged, and also gates, or things that move, swing far better after gift swung constantly. Plenty of things are better when aged, and also I would prefer to recognize if this is additionally true because that tennis balls.

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Acknowledgements

I say thanks to Dr. Choi for teaching me how to carry out this assignment and my parents because that buying tennis balls because that me.

Works Cited

Borlings, D. (2011). History Of Tennis Balls – Who created The Tennis Ball? re-cover 8 24, 2012, from how 2 Tennis: http://www.how-2-tennis.com/history-of-tennis-balls.html

Harriman, D. (2012, 7 24). The Temperature of Tennis Balls. Re-cover 8 24, 2012, from LIVESTRONG: http://www.livestrong.com/article/398740-temperatures-tennis-balls/

Incorporation, I. (2011). Ball History. Re-cover 8 24, 2012, from ITF Tennis: http://www.itftennis.com/technical/equipment/balls/history.asp

Sheehan, K. (2011, march 11). Walk Temperature affect How High a Tennis ball Will Bounce? recall 8 24, 2012, from LIVESTRONG: http://www.livestrong.com/article/401050-does-temperature-affect-how-high-a-tennis-ball-will-bounce/

Wikipedia. (2012, 8 22). Tennis ball. Re-cover 8 24, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennis_ball