The molecule that features as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction _____.

You are watching: Carbohydrates and fats are considered high-energy foods because they

A) gains electrons and also gains potential energy

B) loser electrons and loses potential energy

C) profit electrons and loses potential energy

D) loses electrons and gains potential energy

Section: 9.1


When electrons relocate closer come a much more electronegative atom, what happens? The much more electronegative atom is _____.

A) reduced, and also energy is released

B) reduced, and also energy is consumed

C) oxidized, and also energy is consumed

D) oxidized, and energy is released

Section: 9.1


Which that the noted statements defines the results of the complying with reaction?

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

A) C6H12O6 is oxidized and also O2 is reduced.

B) O2 is oxidized and also H2O is reduced.

C) CO2 is reduced and also O2 is oxidized.

D) O2 is reduced and CO2 is oxidized.

Section: 9.1


When a glucose molecule loser a hydrogen atom as the result of one oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes _____.

A) hydrolyzed

B) oxidized

C) reduced

D) an oxidizing agent

Section: 9.1


When a molecule the NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) profit a hydrogen atom (not a proton), the molecule i do not care _____.

A) dehydrogenated

B) oxidized

C) reduced

D) redoxed

Section: 9.1


Which of the following statements about NAD+ is true?

A) NAD+ is reduced to NADH during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric mountain cycle.

B) NAD+ has more chemical energy than NADH.

C) NAD+ can donate electron for use in oxidative phosphorylation.

D) In the absence of NAD+, glycolysis have the right to still function.

Section: 9.1


The oxygen consumed throughout cellular respiration is affiliated directly in which procedure or event?

A) glycolysis

B) accepting electrons at the end of the electron move chain

C) the citric acid cycle

D) the oxidation of pyruvate come acetyl CoA

Section: 9.1


Carbohydrates and fats are taken into consideration high-energy foods since they _____.

A) have actually a the majority of oxygen atoms.

B) have actually no nitrogen in their makeup.

C) have a the majority of electrons connected with hydrogen.

D) are easily reduced.

Section: 9.1


A cell has enough easily accessible ATP to accomplish its demands for about 30 seconds. What is likely to happen when an athlete exhausts his or she ATP supply?

A) he or she has to sit down and also rest.

B) Catabolic processes are caused that generate much more ATP.

C) ATP is transported right into the cell from the circulatory system.

D) other cells take it over, and the muscle cell that have used up your ATP stop to function.

Section: 9.1


Substrate-level phosphorylation account for about what percentage of the ATP formed by the reaction of glycolysis?

A) 0%

B) 2%

C) 38%

D) 100%

Section: 9.2


The complimentary energy for the oxidation of glucose come CO2 and also water is -686 kcal/mol and also the cost-free energy for the reduction of NAD+ come NADH is +53 kcal/mol. Why are only two molecule of NADH formed during glycolysis once it shows up that as numerous as a dozen might be formed?

A) most of the totally free energy easily accessible from the oxidation the glucose is provided in the production of ATP in glycolysis.

B) Glycolysis is a very inefficient reaction, with much of the power of glucose released together heat.

C) most of the cost-free energy obtainable from the oxidation the glucose stays in pyruvate, among the products of glycolysis.

D) there is no CO2 or water produced as products of glycolysis.

Section: 9.2


C) many of the free energy available from the oxidation of glucose stays in pyruvate, one of the products of glycolysis.


13

Starting through one molecule that glucose, the energy-containing products of glycolysis space _____.

A) 2 NAD+, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP

B) 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and also 2 ATP

C) 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, and 4 ATP

D) 6 CO2, 2 pyruvate, and also 2 ATP

Section: 9.2


B) 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate, and 2 ATP


14

In glycolysis, for each molecule that glucose oxidized come pyruvate _____.

A) 2 molecules the ATP room used and two molecule of ATP space produced.

B) 2 molecules the ATP space used and four molecules of ATP are produced.

C) four molecules of ATP are used and also two molecule of ATP are produced.

D) two molecules of ATP are used and also six molecules of ATP room produced.

Section: 9.2


B) two molecules of ATP space used and four molecule of ATP are produced.


15

Which type of metabolic poison would certainly most straight interfere v glycolysis?

A) one agent that reacts through oxygen and also depletes that is concentration in the cell

B) an certified dealer that binds to pyruvate and also inactivates it

C) an agent that carefully mimics the framework of glucose however is no metabolized

D) one agent that reacts v NADH and also oxidizes it come NAD+

Section: 9.2


C) an certified dealer that carefully mimics the structure of glucose but is no metabolized


16

Most of the CO2 indigenous the catabolism of glucose is released throughout _____.

A) glycolysis

B) electron transport

C) chemiosmosis

D) the citric mountain cycle

Section: 9.2


D) the citric mountain cycle


17

Following glycolysis and also the citric mountain cycle, but prior to the electron deliver chain and also oxidative phosphorylation, the carbon skeleton the glucose has actually been damaged down to CO2 v some net get of ATP. Many of the energy from the initial glucose molecule at that allude in the process, however, is in the type of _____.

A) acetyl-CoA

B) glucose

C) pyruvate

D) NADH

Section: 9.3


D) NADH


18

Which electron carrier(s) role in the citric acid cycle?

A) NAD+ only

B) NADH and also FADH2

C) the electron carry chain

D) ADP and ATP

Section: 9.3


B) NADH and FADH2


19

If you were to include one of the eight citric acid cycle intermediates to the society medium of yeast cultivation in the laboratory, what carry out you think would happen to the rates of ATP and carbon dioxide production?

A) There would certainly be no adjust in ATP production, however we would observe an raised rate the carbon dioxide production.

B) The prices of ATP production and also carbon dioxide production would both increase.

C) The rate of ATP production would decrease, however the rate of carbon dioxide manufacturing would increase.

D) prices of ATP and carbon dioxide production would more than likely both decrease.

Section: 9.3


B) The rates of ATP production and also carbon dioxide manufacturing would both increase.


20

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released throughout which that the complying with stages of cellular respiration?

A) glycolysis and the oxidation the pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B) oxidation of pyruvate come acetyl CoA and the citric mountain cycle

C) oxidative phosphorylation and fermentation

D) fermentation and glycolysis

Section: 9.3


B) oxidation the pyruvate to acetyl CoA and also the citric mountain cycle


21

If glucose is the sole power source, what fraction of the carbon dioxide exhaled by pets is produced by the reaction of the citric acid cycle?

A) 1/6

B) 1/3

C) 2/3

D) every one of it

Section: 9.3


C) 2/3


22

For every mole that glucose (C6H12O6) oxidized by cellular respiration, how plenty of moles that CO2 space released in the citric mountain cycle (see the accompanying figure)?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 32

Section: 9.3


B) 4


23

If pyruvate oxidation is blocked, what will take place to the level of oxaloacetate and also citric acid in the citric acid cycle presented in the accompanying figure?

A) Oxaloacetate will certainly decrease and citric acid will certainly accumulate.

B) Oxaloacetate will accumulate and also citric acid will certainly decrease.

C) Both oxaloacetate and citric acid will certainly decrease.

D) Both oxaloacetate and citric acid will certainly accumulate.

Section: 9.3


B) Oxaloacetate will accumulate and also citric acid will decrease.


24

Starting with citrate, i beg your pardon of the adhering to combinations of products would an outcome from 3 acetyl CoA molecules entering the citric acid cycle (see the accompanying figure)?

A) 1 ATP, 2 CO2, 3 NADH, and also 1 FADH2

B) 3 ATP, 3 CO2, 3 NADH, and also 3 FADH2

C) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2

D) 38 ATP, 6 CO2, 3 NADH, and also 12 FADH2

Section: 9.3


C) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2


25

In the visibility of oxygen, the three-carbon link pyruvate deserve to be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate (1) loses a carbon, which is offered off together a molecule the CO2, (2) is oxidized to type a two-carbon compound dubbed acetate, and also (3) is bonded to coenzyme A.

The three provided steps an outcome in the development of _____.

A) acetyl CoA, O2, and ATP

B) acetyl CoA, FADH2, and also CO2

C) acetyl CoA, NADH, and also CO2

D) acetyl CoA, NAD+, ATP, and also CO2

Section: 9.3


C) acetyl CoA, NADH, and also CO2


26

In the visibility of oxygen, the three-carbon link pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate (1) loses a carbon, i m sorry is provided off as a molecule of CO2, (2) is oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and (3) is external inspection to coenzyme A.

Which one of the complying with is developed by the removal of a carbon (as CO2) native a molecule the pyruvate?

A) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

B) oxaloacetate

C) acetyl CoA

D) citrate

Section: 9.3


C) acetyl CoA


27

Which of the following occasions takes location in the electron transfer chain?

A) the break down of glucose into two pyruvate molecules

B) the failure of one acetyl group to carbon dioxide

C) the extraction of energy from high-energy electrons remaining from glycolysis and also the citric mountain cycle

D) substrate-level phosphorylation

Section: 9.4


C) the exploit of power from high-energy electrons continuing to be from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle


28

The electron transfer chain _____.

A) is a collection of oxidation reactions

B) is a series of substitution reactions

C) is thrust by ATP consumption

D) takes place in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells

Section: 9.4


A) is a series of redox reactions


29

The chemiosmotic hypothesis is crucial concept in our expertise of cellular metabolism in general since it defines _____.

A) how ATP is synthesized by a proton motive force

B) exactly how electron transport deserve to fuel substrate-level phosphorylation

C) the succession of the electron carry chain molecules

D) the palliation of oxygen to water in the final steps of oxidative metabolism

Section: 9.4


A) exactly how ATP is synthesized through a proton motive force


30

During aerobic respiration, electrons take trip downhill in i m sorry sequence?

A) glucose → NADH → electron deliver chain → oxygen

B) glucose → pyruvate → ATP → oxygen

C) glucose → ATP → electron transport chain → NADH

D) food → glycolysis → citric acid cycle → NADH → ATP

Section: 9.4


A) glucose → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen


31

Where are the protein of the electron carry chain located?

A) mitochondrial outer membrane

B) mitochondrial within membrane

C) mitochondrial intermembrane space

D) mitochondrial matrix

Section: 9.4


B) mitochondrial within membrane


32

During aerobic respiration, i beg your pardon of the following directly donates electron to the electron carry chain at the lowest energy level?

A) NADH

B) ATP

C) ADP + i

D) FADH2

Section: 9.4


D) FADH2


33

The primary duty of oxygen in moving respiration is come _____.

A) yield power in the kind of ATP as it is passed under the respiratory tract chain

B) act together an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, developing water

C) integrate with carbon, creating CO2

D) incorporate with lactate, developing pyruvate

Section: 9.4


B) act as an acceptor because that electrons and also hydrogen, forming water


34

During aerobic respiration, H2O is formed. Whereby does the oxygen atom for the development of the water come from?

A) carbon dioxide (CO2)

B) glucose (C6H12O6)

C) molecular oxygen (O2)

D) pyruvate (C3H3O3-)

Section: 9.4


C) molecule oxygen (O2)


35

In chemiosmosis, what is the many direct source of power that is offered to transform ADP + i to ATP?

A) energy released as electrons circulation through the electron deliver system

B) power released from substrate-level phosphorylation

C) power released from movement of protons v ATP synthase, under their electrochemical gradient

D) No external resource of energy is required due to the fact that the reaction is exergonic.

Section: 9.4


C) power released from activity of protons through ATP synthase, under their electrochemical gradient


36

Energy exit by the electron transfer chain is offered to pump H+ into which ar in eukaryotic cells?

A) mitochondrial external membrane

B) mitochondrial within membrane

C) mitochondrial intermembrane space

D) mitochondrial matrix

Section: 9.4


C) mitochondrial intermembrane space


37

When hydrogen ions space pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and also into the intermembrane space, the an outcome is the _____.

A) development of ATP

B) reduction of NAD+

C) development of a proton-motive force

D) lowering the pH in the mitochondrial matrix

Section: 9.4


C) creation of a proton-motive force


38

Approximately how countless molecules that ATP are created from the finish oxidation that one molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) in aerobic to move respiration?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 18-24

D) 30-32

Section: 9.4


D) 30-32


39

The synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, using the energy released by motion of protons throughout the membrane down their electrochemical gradient, is an instance of _____.

A) active transport

B) an endergonic reaction combination to one exergonic reaction

C) a reaction through a optimistic ΔG

D) allosteric regulation

Section: 9.4


B) an endergonic reaction combination to one exergonic reaction


40

If a cell is able come synthesize 30 ATP molecules because that each molecule that glucose totally oxidized to carbon dioxide and also water, approximately how plenty of ATP molecules deserve to the cabinet synthesize for each molecule of pyruvate oxidized to carbon dioxide and water?

A) 0

B) 12

C) 14

D) 26

Section: 9.4


C) 14


41

In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membrane are around five times the area that the outer mitochondrial membranes. What purpose must this serve?

A) It allows for an enhanced rate that glycolysis.

B) It allows for an enhanced rate of the citric mountain cycle.

C) It boosts the surface ar for oxidative phosphorylation.

D) It rises the surface ar for substrate-level phosphorylation.

Section: 9.4


C) It boosts the surface for oxidative phosphorylation.


42

You have actually a friend who shed 7 kg (about 15 pounds) the fat ~ above a regimen of strictly diet and also exercise. Just how did the fat leave his body?

A) It to be released together CO2 and H2O.

B) It to be converted come heat and then released.

C) It to be converted come ATP, which weighs much much less than fat.

D) It was converted come urine and eliminated native the body.

Section: 9.4


A) It to be released together CO2 and H2O.


43

Use the complying with information come answer the concerns below.

Exposing within mitochondrial membrane to ultrasonic vibrations will certainly disrupt the membranes. However, the pieces will reseal "inside out." The small vesicles that result can still move electrons from NADH to oxygen and also synthesize ATP.

After the disruption, once electron transfer and also ATP synthesis still occur, what have to be present?

A) every one of the electron deliver proteins and also ATP synthase

B) all of the electron transfer system and also the capacity to include CoA to acetyl groups

C) the ATP synthase system

D) the electron carry system

Section: 9.4


A) every one of the electron move proteins and ATP synthase


44

Use the complying with information come answer the concerns below.

Exposing inside mitochondrial membrane to ultrasonic vibrations will certainly disrupt the membranes. However, the pieces will reseal "inside out." The tiny vesicles that result can still carry electrons native NADH come oxygen and also synthesize ATP.

These inside-out membrane vesicles will certainly _____.

A) end up being acidic inside the vesicles once NADH is added

B) end up being alkaline within the vesicles as soon as NADH is added

C) do ATP indigenous ADP and i if transferred to a pH 4 buffered systems after incubation in a pH 7 buffered solution

D) hydrolyze ATP to pump protons out of the interior of the vesicle to the exterior

Section: 9.4


A) end up being acidic inside the vesicles once NADH is added


45

Use the complying with information to answer the inquiries below.

Exposing inner mitochondrial membrane to ultrasonic vibrations will certainly disrupt the membranes. However, the pieces will reseal "inside out." The little vesicles that an outcome can still transport electrons from NADH to oxygen and also synthesize ATP.

Chemiosmotic ATP synthetic (oxidative phosphorylation) occurs in _____.

A) all cells, however only in the presence of oxygen

B) only eukaryotic cells, in the existence of oxygen

C) just in mitochondria, making use of either oxygen or other electron acceptors

D) every respiring cells, both prokaryotic and also eukaryotic, utilizing either oxygen or other electron acceptors

Section: 9.4


D) every respiring cells, both prokaryotic and also eukaryotic, using either oxygen or other electron acceptors


46

Which the the complying with normally wake up regardless of whether or no oxygen (O2) is present?

A) glycolysis

B) fermentation

C) citric mountain cycle

D) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)


A) glycolysis


47

Which that the following occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

A) glycolysis and fermentation

B) fermentation and chemiosmosis

C) oxidation that pyruvate come acetyl CoA

D) citric mountain cycle


A) glycolysis and also fermentation


48

In the lack of oxygen, yeast cell can obtain energy by fermentation, bring about the manufacturing of _____.

A) ATP, CO2, and also ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

B) ATP, CO2, and also lactate

C) ATP, NADH, and pyruvate

D) ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA


A) ATP, CO2, and also ethanol (ethyl alcohol)


49

One role of both alcohol fermentation and lactic mountain fermentation is come _____.

A) alleviate NAD+ come NADH

B) mitigate FAD+ to FADH2

C) oxidization NADH come NAD+

D) reduce FADH2 come FAD+


C) oxidation NADH to NAD+


50

An biology is uncovered that thrives in both the existence and absence of oxygen in the air. Curiously, the usage of sugar boosts as oxygen is gotten rid of from the organism"s environment, also though the biology does not get much weight. This biology _____.

A) is a normal eukaryotic organism

B) is photosynthetic

C) is one anaerobic organism

D) is a facultative anaerobe


D) is a facultative anaerobe


51

Why is glycolysis taken into consideration to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have actually evolved?

A) the produces much less ATP than does oxidative phosphorylation.

B) the does not involve oribel or committed structures, does not require oxygen, and also is current in most organisms.

C) it is discovered in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotic cells.

D) It requires the existence of membrane-enclosed cell organelles uncovered only in eukaryotic bio cells.


B) it does not involve oribel or dedicated structures, walk not call for oxygen, and is existing in many organisms.


52

Yeast cell that have defective mitochondria i can not qualify of respiration will have the ability to grow by catabolizing which of the adhering to carbon sources for energy?

A) glucose

B) proteins

C) fat acids

D) together yeast cells will not be qualified of catabolizing any kind of food molecules, and also therefore, will die.


A) glucose


53

What is the oxidizing agent in the adhering to reaction?

Pyruvate + NADH + H+ → Lactate + NAD+

A) NADH

B) NAD+

C) lactate

D) pyruvate


D) pyruvate


54

High level of citric acid inhibit the enzyme phosphofructokinase, a key enzyme in glycolysis. Citric mountain binds come the enzyme at a various location native the energetic site. This is an instance of _____.

A) competitive inhibition

B) allosteric regulation

C) the specificity of enzyme for your substrates

D) positive feedback regulation


B) allosteric regulation


55

Glycolysis is active when cellular power levels room _____; the regulation enzyme, phosphofructokinase, is _____ through ATP.

A) low; activated

B) low; inhibited

C) high; activated

D) high; inhibited


B) low; inhibited


56

Canine phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency afflicts Springer spaniels, influence an approximated 10% the the breed. Given its vital role in glycolysis, one implicit of the hereditary defect bring about PFK deficiency in dogs is _____.

A) early on embryonic mortality

B) elevated blood-glucose level in the dog"s blood

C) an intolerance because that exercise

D) a reduced life span


C) one intolerance because that exercise


57

A young dog has never had much energy. The is carried to a veterinary for assist and she decides come conduct number of diagnostic tests. She discovers the the dog"s mitochondria can use just fatty acids and also amino acids because that respiration, and his cells produce much more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of the dog"s condition?

A) His mitochondria lack the transfer protein the moves pyruvate across the external mitochondrial membrane.

B) His cell cannot relocate NADH indigenous glycolysis into the mitochondria.

C) His cells absence the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate.

D) His cells have a defective electron move chain, so glucose goes come lactate instead of come acetyl CoA.


A) His mitochondria absence the move protein the moves pyruvate throughout the external mitochondrial membrane.


58

Even despite plants cells photosynthesize, they still usage their mitochondria for oxidation the pyruvate. This will take place in _____.

A) photosynthetic cell in the light, if photosynthesis wake up concurrently

B) cell that room storing glucose only

C) every cells all the time

D) photosynthesizing cells in the light and in other tissues in the dark


C) all cells all the time


59

In respiration, beta oxidation entails the _____.

A) oxidation of glucose

B) oxidation that pyruvate

C) regulation of glycolysis

D) breakdown of fatty acids


D) failure of fat acids


60

Fatty mountain usually have actually an even number of carbons in their structures. They room catabolized by a process called beta-oxidation. The end assets of the metabolic pathway space acetyl teams of acetyl CoA molecules. This acetyl teams _____.

A) straight enter the electron move chain

B) straight enter the energy-yielding stages of glycolysis

C) are straight decarboxylated by pyruvate dehydrogenase

D) directly enter the citric mountain cycle


D) directly enter the citric mountain cycle


61

New biosensors, applied like a momentary tattoo come the skin, deserve to alert serious athletes that they are about to "hit the wall" and also find it difficult to proceed exercising. These biosensors screen lactate, a type of lactic acid, exit in sweat throughout strenuous exercise.

Which of the statements below is the best explanation the why athletes would should monitor lactate levels?

A) throughout aerobic respiration, muscle cell cannot develop enough lactate to fuel muscle cell contractions and also muscles start to cramp, thus athletic power suffers.

B) throughout anaerobic respiration, lactate levels increase when muscles cell need much more energy, however muscles cells ultimately fatigue, hence athletes need to modify their activities to rise aerobic respiration.

C) during aerobic respiration, muscles cells produce too much lactate which reasons a rise in the pH of the muscle cells, hence athletes must consume increased quantities of sporting activities drinks, high in electrolytes, come buffer the pH.

D) throughout anaerobic respiration, muscle cells obtain too tiny oxygen and begin to transform lactate to pyruvate (pyruvic acid), therefore athletes experience cramping and also fatigue.

See more: A Recipe Calls For 2 Cups Of Flour To Make 24 Cookies


B) throughout anaerobic respiration, lactate levels increase when muscles cells need much more energy, however muscles cells at some point fatigue, for this reason athletes should modify their activities to rise aerobic respiration.